General Topics

What Are The Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions? | Ophthalmology

Common eye problems in children

  • Squint
  • Chalazion
  • Amblyopia
  • Refractive error

The most common eye problems include dizzy eyes (strabismus), mild eyelid swelling (chalazion), lazy eye (amblyopia), and the need for strong glasses at a young age (refractive error).

See your family doctor if you are concerned about your baby’s eyes.

Squinting (strabismus)

Strabismus may be known as turned eyes, crossed eyes, squint, or lazy eyes. Strabismus happens when the eyes point in different directions. When one eye is straight the other may point in, out, up or down. This may be noticeable all the time, or it may come and go. It may be present at birth or appear later. In babies and children with strabismus, the vision in the turned eye will not develop normally. Children do not outgrow strabismus. Treatment is most effective when started at an early age and may include glasses, patching, exercises, or surgery and is usually a combination of these.

Treatment is performed by an ophthalmologist and an orthopedist.

The aim of strabismus treatment:

  • Good vision in both eyes
  • Good performance
  • Coordinated eyes (i.e. depth perception)


Amblyopia occurs when one eye is lazy because it does not receive a clear image like the other eye. The most common causes of amblyopia are strabismus, refractive error (misalignment), ptosis (drooping eyelid), and cataracts (cloud or blurring of the lens). If left untreated, it can lead to very low vision. Treatment for amblyopia consists of patches and/or glasses. Vision usually improves when treatment is started at an early age.


Mild inflammation of the eyelid chalazion when there is a blockage in the glands of the upper or lower eyelid. The eyelid may be swollen and red and sometimes have a yellowish discharge. Your baby will have a lot of chalazion on the eyelid at one point and it can occur in one or both eyes.

Take your child to your family doctor, who will prescribe early treatment. If there is no improvement after 3-4 months of treatment, you should see an ophthalmologist.

If the chalazion is too large, it will cover the centre of your child’s pupil (the central black part of the eye), which can affect your child’s vision. Your family doctor will need to refer you to an ophthalmologist.

Blocked tear duct (epiphora)

Epiphora or watering eyes may happen if the duct that drains tears from the eye to the nose becomes blocked. In many cases, blocked tear ducts get better by themselves, but if this doesn’t happen within 12 months, or frequent infection becomes a problem, a small surgical procedure may be necessary. Blocked tear ducts are not the only cause of watering eyes so it’s a good idea to have an eye examination.

Signs to watch in childhood eye diseases

Occasionally, serious conditions have signs and symptoms similar to those described above. For this reason, children suspected of having an eye problem should be examined.

  • one or both pupils have an unusual or white appearance this may be noticed in photographs.
  • There is constant watering or discharge from your child’s eyes.
  • One eye often appears dizzy or the eyes do not seem to move well.
  • You have extreme sensitivity to light or light.
  • Your child’s head will always tilt/turn to one side.

Routine exam for vision problems

Screening for certain vision problems is done immediately after birth and at age 4 as part of a B4 school check. If your child is not screened, he or she must have this test during the first year of school. Please contact your child’s school to make sure the hearing and vision technician has examined your child at your next visit. This exam did not detect all vision problems.

A comprehensive eye exam is recommended for all infants and children:

  • Turned eye (strabismus)
  • Lazy eye (amblyopia)
  • Strong glasses at an early age (refractive error)
  • Premature birth (30 weeks gestation or less)
  • Developmental delay

If none of the above applies to your child, but if you have a family history of dizzy eyes, laziness, or strong glasses at a young age, then the ideal time for your child to have an eye exam is between 2 and a half year or 3 years. At this age, your child is old enough for a very accurate vision test and it is still too early to handle any problems.

General Topics

Overview of Endocrine Neoplasia and Cancer | Endocrinology

What are endocrine neoplasia and cancer?

Endocrine neoplasia refers to growths or tumors that affect the hormone-producing endocrine system. Tumors develop in the adrenal glands, pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, or pancreas and can be cancerous or benign. The Nig Comprehensive Cancer Center‌ Endocrine Neoplasia Program is dedicated to the evaluation and treatment of the structural and hormonal symptoms of these disorders.

Our endocrine neoplasia program is the only one in Connecticut, and our dedicated team of experienced multidisciplinary specialists provides clinical services in the following areas:

  • Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules
  • Fine injection aspiration biopsy: Thyroid and adrenal
  • Thyroid ultrasound
  • Thyroid carcinoma test: Thyrogen stimulated thyroglobulin and thyroid scan
  • Cancer and benign tumors of the adrenal glands.
  • Invasive radiology including petrous sinus sampling, adrenal vein sampling, and selective infusion of pancreatic calcium
  • Hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid tumors
  • Pituitary adenomas
  • Dynamic endocrine examination
  • Nuclear medicine scan

With specialists in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, we work with teams of physicians from other disciplines to treat patients with endocrine neoplasia. Our medical professionals have experience in endocrine surgery, urological surgery, neurosurgery, neuro-ophthalmology, pathology, nuclear medicine, invasive radiology, hypertension, genetics, molecular biology, and endocrinology. They provide state-of-the-art patient care while conducting basic and clinical research to advance treatment options.

Types of endocrine neoplasia and cancer

Tumors can appear in any large endocrine gland, including the thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, and adrenal glands, and the pancreas. The most common sites are:

  • Thyroid gland: Most endocrine cancers develop in the thyroid gland (a butterfly-shaped organ in the lower neck). Thyroid cancer is more common in women than in men. Statistics show that the annual rate of thyroid cancer is increasing in the United States and around the world. The good news is that most thyroid tumors (called nodules) are not cancerous.
  • Pituitary gland: A pea-sized organ connected to the brain, the pituitary gland produces hormones that affect growth and fertility. Pituitary tumors are almost always benign, but they contain more or less than one or more hormones, which can upset the balance of other glands.
  • Adrenal gland: The two adrenal glands that live above the kidneys produce hormones that regulate metabolism (cortisol), stress response (adrenaline), blood pressure (aldosterone), and certain sexual characteristics (androgens).
  • Pancreas: Although the pancreas plays an active role in the digestive system, it is also a source of important hormones, including insulin. Rare tumors produce too much insulin or other related hormones, which can affect blood sugar levels.

Although some cases are inherited, the cause of most endocrine cancers is generally unclear.

Symptoms of endocrine neoplasia and cancer

Some patients with thyroid tumors notice a lump in the neck. For others, and for other endocrine tumors, the general rules do not apply. Some tumors cause severe hormonal changes or discomfort, while other tumors do not have any symptoms.

So when does a tumor have symptoms? You basically have symptoms if it doesn’t work (makes extra hormones) but is active (doesn’t make them). For example, an adrenal tumor that produces excess testosterone can cause a patient to develop certain male characteristics, such as facial hair. Symptoms also appear as the tumor grows.

A large tumor destroys part of the gland, causing a lack of hormones. It also affects nearby structures. For example, a large pituitary tumor can focus on the nerve that runs between the eyes and the brain, causing vision changes. When endocrine tumors have no symptoms, doctors may randomly notice them and evaluate the patient for another reason.

What are the genes associated with multiple endocrine neoplasias?

Mutations in the MEN1, RET, and CDKN1B genes cause multiple endocrine neoplasms. Mutations in the MEN1 gene cause type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasias. This gene provides instructions for the production of a protein called melanin. Menin acts as a tumor suppressor, which means that it generally prevents cells from growing and dividing too quickly or uncontrollably.

Although the exact function of the meninges is unknown, it is involved in cellular functions such as DNA copying and repair and regulation of the activity of other genes. When mutations inactivate two copies of the MEN1 gene, the meninges are no longer available to control cell growth and division. Loss of functional meninges allows cells to divide more frequently, leading to tumor characterization of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. It is not clear why these tumors affect endocrine tissues.

Mutations in the RET gene can cause type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasias. This gene provides instructions for the production of a protein involved in cell signaling. The RET protein stimulates chemical reactions that direct cells to respond to their environment, for example by dividing or maturing. Mutations in the RET gene over-activate the protein’s signaling function, which stimulates cell growth and division in the absence of signals external to the cell. This unproven cell division can lead to the formation of tumors in the endocrine glands and other tissues.

Mutations in the CDKN1B gene cause type 4 multiple endocrine neoplasias. This gene provides instructions for the production of a protein called p27. Like the meaning protein, p27 is a tumor suppressor that helps regulate cell growth and division. Mutations in the CDKN1B gene reduce the number of functional p27 that allows cells to grow and divide without being analyzed. This irregular cell division leads to the development of tumors in the endocrine glands and other tissues.

Diagnosis of endocrine neoplasia and cancer

Doctors can perform several tests to check for a suspected endocrine tumor:

  • A medical history and physical exam to assess for physical or behavioral changes related to hormone function
  • Lab tests to check for abnormal hormone levels in the blood or urine
  • Imaging studies (CT scan, MRI, or ultrasound) to look for evidence of abnormal tissue in the gland
  • A biopsy to obtain a sample of abnormal tissue and analyze it for cancer cells

Treatment for endocrine neoplasia and cancer

For any endocrine tumor, treatment involves surgery to remove it. For people with cancer, another approach that is sometimes used is radiation therapy. Patients sometimes receive hormone therapy to balance the level of hormones in the body. Depending on the type of tumor, your doctor may prescribe other specific rules to meet your individual needs.

General Topics

Overview of Female Reproductive Endocrinology | Endocrinology

What is female reproductive endocrinology?

The hormonal interaction between the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland, and the ovaries regulate the female reproductive endocrinology system. The hypothalamus secretes a small peptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), also recognized as a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

GnRH regulates the release of gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from specialized (gonadotropic) cells in the anterior pituitary gland (see figure The CNS-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal target organ axis). These hormones are released in short bursts (pulses) every 1 to 4 hours. LH and FSH promote ovulation and stimulate the secretion of the sex hormones estradiol (an estrogen) and progesterone from the ovaries.

Estrogen and progesterone circulating in the bloodstream almost completely bound to plasma proteins. Only free estrogen and progesterone appear to be biologically active. They stimulate the target organs of the reproductive system (eg, breasts, uterus, vagina). They are usually inhibitory, but in certain situations (eg, around ovulation), they can stimulate gonadotropin secretion.


Puberty is the order of events in which a child acquires adult physical characteristics and reproductive volume. Circulating levels of LH and FSH are elevated at birth, but drop to low levels within a few months and remain low until puberty. Until puberty, few qualitative variations occur in reproductive target organs.

Age of onset of puberty: The age of onset of puberty and the rate of development through diverse stages are influenced by different factors. Over the past 150 years, the age at which puberty begins has been decreasing, primarily due to better health and nutrition, but this trend has stabilized. Puberty often occurs earlier than average in moderately obese girls and later than average in underweight and malnourished girls.

Such explanations suggest that critical body weight or amount of fat is essential for puberty. Many other factors can influence the onset of puberty and how quickly it progresses. For example, there is some evidence that intrauterine growth restriction, especially when followed by postnatal overfeeding, can contribute to earlier and faster development of puberty.

Puberty occurs earlier in girls whose mothers matured earlier and, for unknown reasons, in girls who live in urban areas or who are blind. The age of onset of puberty also varies between ethnic groups (eg, it tends to be earlier in blacks and Hispanics than in Asian and non-Hispanic whites).

Physical changes of puberty: The physical changes of puberty occur consecutively during adolescence (see figure Puberty, when female sexual characteristics progress). Mammary budding (see figure Schematic representation of Tanner stages I to V of human mammary maturation) and the onset of the growth spurt are generally the first recognized changes.

Subsequently, pubic and axillary hair appear (see figure Schematic representation of Tanner’s stages I to V for pubic hair development in girls), and accelerated growth peaks.

Menarche (the first menstrual period) occurs about 2 to 3 years after the breast buds. Menstrual cycles are typically irregular at menarche and can take up to 5 years to become regular. The growth spurt is limited after menarche. Body habit changes and the pelvis and hips widen. Body fat increases and accumulates on the hips and thighs.

Mechanisms that initiate puberty: The mechanisms that initiate puberty are unclear.

Central influences that regulate GnRH release include neurotransmitters and peptides (eg, gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA], kisspeptin). These factors can inhibit GnRH release during childhood and then initiate its release to induce puberty in early adolescence. In early puberty, hypothalamic GnRH release becomes less sensitive to inhibition by estrogen and progesterone.

The resulting increase in GnRH release promotes the secretion of LH and FSH, which stimulates the production of sex hormones, primarily estrogen. Estrogen stimulates the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

The growth of pubic and axillary hair can be enthused by the adrenal androgens dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate; the manufacture of these androgens increases several years before puberty in a process called adrenarche.

The Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal (HPG) Axis of Amphibians

Reproductive endocrinology has been characterized mainly in anurans (frogs, toads) with some corroborative data from urodeles (salamanders, newts). Gymnophionid amphibians (caecilians or apodans) are similar to urodeles, although endocrine details are not well understood.

The hypothalamus controls gonadotropin secretion through the release of GnRH (see Tsai (2011)). Amphibian FSH stimulates spermatogenesis in males, as well as follicle development and estrogen secretion in females.

What regulates the female reproductive endocrinology cycle?

The menstrual cycle is regulated by hormones. Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, which are bent by the pituitary gland, promote ovulation and kindle the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone.

What are the two female reproductive endocrinology cycles?

A fertile woman exhibits two periodic cycles: the ovarian cycle, which occurs in the cortex of the ovary, and the menstrual cycle, which occurs in the endometrium of the uterus. The phases of the menstrual cycle are under the control of the hormones unseen during the different phases of the ovarian cycle.

What are the 2 main female reproductive endocrinology hormones?

The two main feminine sex hormones are estrogen and progesterone. Although testosterone is considered a male hormone, women also produce and need a small amount of it as well.

What are the 5 main functions of the endocrine system?

  • Endocrine system function
  • Growth and development
  • sexual function and reproduction
  • heart rate
  • blood pressure
  • sleep and wake cycles
  • body temperature

How does the endocrine system touch the female reproductive endocrinology system?

The endocrine glands release hormones into the bloodstream. This allows hormones to travel to cells in other parts of the body. Endocrine hormones help control mood, growth, and development, the way our organs function, metabolism, and reproduction. The endocrine system regulates the amount of each hormone that is released.

General Topics

Causes and Types of Thyroid Disorders And Cancer | Endocrinology

Thyroid disorders and cancer

It occurs in thyroid cancer cells – a butterfly-shaped gland at the base of your neck, just below your Adam’s apple. Your thyroid makes hormones that regulate your heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight. Thyroid cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. But as it grows, it causes pain and swelling in the neck.

There are many types of thyroid cancer. Some grow very slowly and others are very aggressive. Most cases of thyroid cancer can be cured with treatment. Thyroid cancer rates appear to be increasing. Some doctors believe this is because new technology allows them to detect small, previously undeveloped thyroid cancers.

Symptoms of thyroid cancer

It’s common for people with thyroid cancer to have fewer or no symptoms. These are often diagnosed by a routine physical exam of the neck. They can also be detected accidentally by X-rays or other imaging scans done for other reasons. People may experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes people do not have any of these changes. Or, the symptom may be caused by a different medical condition that is not cancerous.

In front of the neck, a lump near Adam’s apple.

  • Blunt
  • Swelling of the glands in the neck.
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Throat or neck pain
  • The cough persists and is not caused by a cold.

If you are concerned about any changes you may experience, speak with your doctor. Among other things, your doctor may ask how often and how often you experience symptoms. This helps identify the cause of the problem called a diagnosis. Other thyroid problems such as goiter; Or a condition not related to the thyroid, such as an infection.

If cancer is diagnosed, symptom relief is an important part of cancer care and treatment. This is called palliative or supportive care. It often begins after diagnosis and continues throughout treatment. Be sure to talk to your healthcare team about any symptoms you are experiencing, including new symptoms or changes in symptoms.

How common is thyroid cancer?

This is rare cancer accounting for less than 1% of all cancer cases in the UK. Every year approximately 2,700 people in the UK are diagnosed. It is most common in people 35 to 39 years old and in people 70 and older.

Women are 2 to 3 times more likely to develop, than men. It is not clear why, but it may be the result of hormonal changes associated with the female reproductive system.

Who gets it?

This is more common in women than in men. Women have between the ages of 40 and 50, while men who have it are usually between the ages of 60 and 70. Follicular thyroid cancer is more common in whites than blacks and more women than men. You can still get this if you are young. Papillary thyroid cancer, for example, occurs most often in people between the ages of 30 and 50.

Types of thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is classified into types based on the cells found in the tumor. Its type is determined when a sample of tissue from your cancer is examined under a microscope. The type of thyroid cancer is considered to determine its treatment and prognosis.

Types of thyroid cancer:

  • Papillary thyroid cancer: The most common form of thyroid cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, arises from follicular cells that produce and store thyroid hormones. Papillary thyroid cancer can occur at any age, but most often affects people between the ages of 30 and 50. Doctors sometimes refer to papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer together as thyroid cancer.
  • Follicular thyroid cancer: Follicular thyroid cancer also arises from the follicular cells of the thyroid. It usually affects people over 50 years of age. Hartley cell cancer is a rare and more aggressive type of follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer: This is a rare thyroid cancer that begins in follicular cells. It grows quickly and is very difficult to treat. Anaplastic thyroid cancer usually occurs in adults 60 years of age or older.
  • Medullary thyroid cancer: It begins in thyroid cells called C cells, which make a hormone called calcitonin. Calcitonin levels in the blood indicate medullary at a very early stage. Some genetic syndromes increase the risk of medullary thyroid cancer, although this genetic link is unusual.
  • Other rare varieties: Another very rare cancer that begins in the thyroid is thyroid lymphoma, which begins in the cells of the thyroid immune system, and thyroid sarcoma, which begins in the cells of the thyroid connective tissue.

Causes of thyroid cancer

In most cases, the cause is unknown. However, some things increase the chances of developing your condition. The cause is unclear.

It occurs when cells in your thyroid undergo genetic changes (mutations). Mutations allow cells to grow and multiply rapidly. Cells also lose the ability to die, just like normal cells. The abnormal thyroid cells have accumulated from a tumor. The abnormal cells can attack nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize).

Risk factors of thyroid cancer

Factors that increase the risk:

  • The female gender is more common in women than in men
  • Exposure to high levels of radiation. Radiation therapy treatments to the head and neck increase the risk

Some hereditary genetic syndromes. Genetic syndromes that increase the risk, and include familial medullary thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasms, Cowden’s syndrome, and familial adenomatous polyposis.

Recurrent thyroid cancer: Despite treatment, even if the thyroid is removed, it will return. This happens when microscopic cancer cells cross the thyroid before being removed.

  • Lymph nodes in the neck
  • Small pieces of thyroid tissue remain during surgery
  • Other areas of the body, such as the lungs and bones.
  • Recurrent thyroid cancer can be treated. Your doctor may recommend regular blood tests or thyroid scans to check for recurring signs.

Diagnosis of thyroid cancer

A type of blood test called a thyroid function test measures hormone levels in the blood and can rule out or confirm other thyroid problems. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used if nothing else appears to be causing a thyroid lump. More evidence is needed if the FNAC results are incomplete or if more information is needed to make your treatment more effective.

Treatment for thyroid cancer

Treatment options depend on your type and stage, and your general health, and your preferences. Most of those can be cured with treatment. Treatment may not be needed right away

Very small thyroid cancers that have a low risk of spreading throughout the body do not require immediate treatment. Instead, you can often consider active surveillance with cancer control. Your doctor may recommend blood tests and an ultrasound exam of your neck once or twice a year. In some people, cancer never grows and does not require treatment. In others, the increase can eventually be detected and treatment started.

  • Surgery
  • Parathyroid glands
  • Open the Parathyroid Glands pop-up dialog

Most people have surgery to remove the thyroid. Your doctor may recommend any operations based on the type of thyroid cancer, the size of the cancer, whether the cancer has spread beyond the thyroid, and the results of an ultrasound examination of the entire thyroid gland.

Operations used to treat thyroid cancer:

Remove all or most of the thyroid (thyroidectomy). An operation to remove the thyroid gland involves the removal of thyroid tissue (total thyroidectomy) or thyroid tissue (near the entire thyroidectomy). The surgeon often leaves small borders of thyroid tissue around the parathyroid glands, which can help control calcium levels in the blood.

Removal of a portion of the thyroid (thyroid lobectomy). During a thyroid lobectomy, the surgeon removes half of the thyroid. This may be recommended if you have slow-growing thyroid cancer in one part of the thyroid and there are no suspicious nodules in other areas of the thyroid.

Removal of lymph nodes in the neck (lymph node dissection). By removing the thyroid, the surgeon can also remove nearby lymph nodes in the neck. These can be tested for signs of cancer.

Thyroid surgery can increase the risk of bleeding and infection. Damage to the parathyroid glands can also occur during surgery, which can lead to lower levels of calcium in your body. The nerves connected to the vocal cords may not function normally after surgery, which can lead to laryngeal paralysis, numbness, voice changes, or shortness of breath. Treatment improves or reverses nerve problems.

Thyroid hormone therapy: After a thyroidectomy, you can take the medicine levothyroxine (Levoxyl, Synthroid, others) for life. This action has two benefits: it supplies the missing hormone normally produced by the thyroid, and it suppresses the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland. High levels of TSH can trigger the growth of the remaining cancer cells.

Radioactive iodine: Radioactive iodine treatment uses large doses of radioactive iodine. Radioactive iodine treatment is often used to destroy healthy thyroid tissue that remains after a thyroidectomy, as well as microscopic areas of thyroid cancer that have not been surgically removed. Radioactive iodine treatment is also helpful, which can come back after treatment or spread to other parts of the body.

Radioactive iodine treatment comes as a capsule or liquid that is swallowed. Radioactive iodine is taken up primarily by thyroid cells so the risk of damaging other cells in your body is low.

Side effects can include:

  • Dry mouth
  • Oral pain
  • Inflammation of the eye
  • Altered sense of taste or smell
  • Fatigue

Most of the radioactive iodine is excreted in the urine during the first days after treatment. You will be told what precautions to take at this time to protect other people from radiation. For example, you may be asked to temporarily avoid close contact with other people, especially children, and pregnant women.

External radiation therapy: Radiation therapy can also be delivered externally to a specific point on your body (external beam radiation therapy) using a machine that targets high-energy rays, such as X-rays and protons. During treatment, you lie on a table while a machine moves around you. External beam radiation therapy may be recommended if surgery is not an option and your cancer is growing after treatment with radioactive iodine. Radiation therapy may also be recommended after surgery if your cancer is at risk of recurrence.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer by using chemicals to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy is usually given through an IV. The chemicals travel throughout the body and destroy rapidly growing cells, including cancer cells. Chemotherapy is not commonly used, but it is sometimes recommended for people with anaplastic. Chemotherapy can be combined with radiation therapy.

Targeted drug treatment: Targeted drug therapies target specific abnormalities in cancer cells. By preventing these abnormalities, targeted therapeutic therapies can cause cancer cells to die. Drug treatment targets the signals that tell cancer cells to grow and divide. It is commonly used in advanced cancer.

Alcohol injection in cancers: Alcohol ablation is the injection with alcohol to ensure accurate injection placement using ultrasound-like imaging. This procedure reduces thyroid cancer. Alcohol ablation may be an option if your cancer is very small and surgery is not an option. It is sometimes used to treat recurrent cancer of the lymph nodes after surgery.

Supportive (palliative) care: Palliative care is specialized medical care that focuses on relieving pain and other symptoms of a serious illness. Hospice professionals will work with you, your family, and your other doctors to provide additional support to complete your ongoing care. Palliative care can be used when other aggressive treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy are performed. Most of it is offered at the beginning of cancer treatment. When palliative care is used in conjunction with all other appropriate therapies, people with cancer can feel better and live longer.

Palliative care is provided by a team of specially trained doctors, nurses, and other professionals. Palliative care teams aim to improve the standard of living for people with cancer and their families.

Prevention of thyroid cancer

Doctors do not know the cause, so there is no way to prevent, in those with an average risk of developing the disease.

Prevention for high-risk people: Thyroid surgery to prevent cancer (immune thyroidectomy) may be considered in adults and children with a genetic mutation that increases the risk of medullary thyroid cancer. Discuss your options with a genetic counselor who can explain your thyroid cancer risk and your treatment options.

Prevention for people close to nuclear power plants: Sometimes a drug that blocks the effects of radiation on the thyroid is given to people who live near nuclear power plants. Medicines (potassium iodide) can be used in the event of an accident in a nuclear reactor. If you live within 10 miles of a nuclear power plant and are concerned about safety precautions, contact your local or state emergency management department for more information.

General Topics

Diagnosis of Conjunctivitis in Children | Ophthalmology

What is conjunctivitis in children?

Conjunctivitis in children is inflammation of the lining of the eye over the eyeball and inside the eyelids. Infection with bacteria or viruses can cause conjunctivitis. Infection occurs easily, especially if the eye is already irritated. Sometimes children can develop conjunctivitis as part of a cold.

Viral conjunctivitis is very contagious, but bacterial conjunctivitis is not. conjunctivitis in children’s condition is often classified as neonatal conjunctivitis or infantile conjunctivitis. Each group has different causes and treatments.

Types of conjunctivitis in children

  1. Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Bacterial conjunctivitis is another common type of pink eye in which viruses are spread through the air by sneezing and coughing. Bacterial conjunctivitis is a common viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, such as measles, the flu, or the common cold.
  2. Viral Conjunctivitis: Viral conjunctivitis is a common infection in the Western population and is often associated with other infections throughout the body. Due to their correlation with respiratory anatomy, viral upper respiratory infections are a common cause of secondary viral conjunctivitis.
  3. Gonococcal and chlamydial conjunctivitis: It is caused by a bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhea. The newborn passes this type of conjunctivitis through the birth canal of the infected mother. This type of conjunctivitis can be prevented with the use of eye drops at birth in newborns. Newborn eyes are often very red, with thick discharge and swelling of the eyelids. This type usually begins 2 to 4 days after birth. Treatment of gonococcal conjunctivitis usually involves antibiotics through an intravenous (IV) catheter.
  4. Allergic Conjunctivitis: Caused by an allergy, not an infection, not an infection. Antibiotic eye drops may not help, but allergy eye drops can. It usually affects both eyes and the main symptoms in children are watery eyes and itching.
  5. Non-infectious conjunctivitis: Conjunctivitis, which is caused by irritation of the eyes, causes symptoms of conjunctivitis that can occur from a variety of sources, including smoke, diesel exhaust, perfumes, and certain chemicals. Some types of conjunctivitis stem from sensitivity to certain substances ingested, including herbs such as conjunctiva and turmeric.

Causes of conjunctivitis in children

Conjunctivitis in children may be caused by:

  • Bacteria (several different varieties may cause conjunctivitis)
  • Viruses (such as adenovirus or herpes virus)
  • Allergies
  • Exposure to chemicals (rarely, the drops given to newborns for preventing conjunctivitis may have the reverse effect and may irritate the eye)

The causes and treatments of conjunctivitis in children among newborns may differ.

Symptoms of conjunctivitis in children

The following are common symptoms of the condition. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. There may be symptoms:

  • Gritty feeling in one or both eyes
  • Itchy, irritated eyes
  • Clear, thin drainage and increased tearing
  • Sneezing and runny nose
  • Stringy discharge from the eyes
  • Thick, green drainage from the eyes
  • Ear infection
  • A lesion with a crusty appearance
  • Eyes that are matted together in the morning
  • Swelling of the eyelids
  • Pink or red discolouration of the whites of one or both eyes
  • Discomfort when the child looks at a light
  • Burning in the eyes

The symptoms of conjunctivitis in children sometimes resemble other medical problems. Always see your child’s healthcare provider for an examination.

Diagnosis of conjunctivitis in children

Conjunctivitis in children can be diagnosed by its symptoms, and the exact cause can be determined by the paediatrician. Since there are other conditions, such as hay fever, that have similar symptoms, it is important to see a paediatrician as soon as possible.

Common symptoms of infectious conjunctivitis are red, watery, and sticky eyes. However, infectious conjunctivitis is sometimes confused with other types of conjunctivitis, which are treated differently.

Conjunctivitis in children treatment

Treatment depends on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It also depends on the cause of the situation, for example:

  • Bacterial infections: It is administered with antibiotic eye drops.
  • Viral infection: Viral conjunctivitis generally does not require treatment. In some cases, antibiotic eye drops can be used to prevent secondary infection.
  • Allergic reaction: Treatment of conjunctivitis caused by allergies generally involves treating the allergies. Your child’s primary care provider may prescribe oral medications or eye drops to help with allergies.
  • Herpes infection: If your child has an eye infection caused by a herpes infection, her paediatrician may refer her to an eye care specialist. You can give your child both oral medications and eye drops.

If the disease is affected by an infection, it is important to know that the disease can spread from one eye to another by touching the affected eye or the fluid that comes out of the eye. The infection can also spread to other people. Fluid from the eye comes out 24 to 48 hours after starting treatment.

To help prevent the spread of infection, you should wash your hands frequently while caring for your baby. Make sure your child does not touch her eyes. Your child should wash her hands often.

Prevention of conjunctivitis in children

Conjunctivitis spreads throughout the nursery or preschool. In some cases, the infection is passed on to the friends of young children, who pass it on to the child.

Common prevention strategies reduce the spread of infections and reduce the risk of recurrent conjunctivitis:

  • Encourage young children to avoid touching or rubbing their eyes.
  • Keep school children away from school with a fever or thick eye discharge.
  • Don’t share eye care products like contact lenses, glasses, or eye makeup. Encourage children not to share these products.
  • Practice washing your hands frequently.
  • Encourage children not to touch their friends’ faces.

Complications of conjunctivitis in children

Pink eye is a depressing condition, especially allergic conjunctivitis, but in most cases, it does not pose a serious health threat.

Complications of conjunctivitis are very rare, but when they do occur they are serious and include:

  • A severe case of allergic conjunctivitis can lead to scarring of the eye
  • In cases of infectious conjunctivitis, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and trigger more serious secondary infections, such as meningitis.

When to contact the doctor

  • Worsening drainage or discharge from the eye
  • Fever in addition to pink eye
  • Blistering or rash on the eyelids
  • Severe light sensation or pain
  • Vision problems
  • Any injury to the eye
  • Symptoms that do not change within a week.