General Topics

Home Remedies for Watery Eyes | Ophthalmology

What are watery eyes?

Watery eyes can be very irritating and can cause indistinct vision, sore eyelids, and sticky eyes. But, most of the time, the condition can be resolved at home. There are many things you can do to keep your eyes from watering, in addition to eye drops and medicine.

Home remedies for watery eyes

  • Flush your eyes with clean water (evading tap water) when you suspect a foreign particle has caused the problem.
  • Use a clean, damp cloth, not your hands, to wipe your eyes or wipe away tears to avoid getting bacterial infections.
  • Avoid rubbing your eyes if you think you have foreign particles attached to them, as doing so can damage your eye.
  • Try rubbing coconut oil around your eyes to provide soothing eye relief.
  • Make a warm eye compress to soothe red and irritated eyes. In addition to reducing redness and irritation, warm compresses also help remove scabs from your eyes and remove toxins that may be blocking your tear ducts.
  • Using tea bags (chamomile, peppermint, and spearmint) can be an effective home remedy to treat watery eyes. Soak the tea bags in warm water for a few minutes, and once it has warmed up, you can place it on your eyes.
  • Make a soothing eyewash solution by mixing 1 teaspoon of baking soda in a cup of water. Rinse your eyes with the solution 2-3 times a day.
  • Wear protective sunglasses when outdoors, but be sure to clean them before wearing them.
  • Remember, makeup or cosmetics that contain ingredients that can trigger allergic reactions can cause eye irritation and tear. You can also avoid sharing with other people.

Caution for home remedies

Before using home remedies to luxury your eyes, it is best to refer a health professional. Some eye infections can be serious. Talk to your doctor if you think you have an eye infection. If you think your child has an eye infection, take him to the doctor instead of trying these home remedies.

Saltwater: Saltwater, or saline solution, is one of the most effective home remedies for eye infections. Saline is similar to tears, which is how the eye naturally cleans itself. Salt also has antimicrobial properties. Because of this, it stands to reason that saline can effectively treat eye infections.

Teabags: Placing cold tea bags on your eyes while they are closed can be a way to relax and unwind. Some say it can be an effective home treatment for eye infections. Some types of tea have anti-inflammatory and soothing properties. For example, studies have suggested that green tea, chamomile, Trusted Source rooibos, and Trusted Source black tea have anti-inflammatory properties.

Because of this, using tea bags on the eyes could be an effective way to reduce puffiness. As of yet, there are no studies showing how teabags affect the eyes, or if they can be used to treat eye infections. Keep in mind that while anti-inflammatory treatments can alleviate symptoms, an eye infection must be treated at the cause.

Warm compress: If your eyes are sore, ill, or irritated, a warm compress can help. A 2014 study of 22 participants suggested that warm compresses can improve eye health in those with healthy eyes. A 2012 review of studies, a trusted source, showed that warm compresses can help people with blepharitis, a condition that involves the eyelid becoming inflamed and crusting.

Also, the American Academy of Ophthalmology suggests using a warm compress to ease the symptoms of conjunctivitis. Warm compresses may soothe styes by reducing the blockages that caused the stye. They can also help relieve dry eye symptoms. It is important to note that while warm compresses can provide relief, they cannot actually cure the condition.

Cold compress: Like hot compresses, cold compresses do not exactly cure eye infections. However, they can ease the discomfort associated with certain eye diseases. Cold compresses can decrease swelling in the case of eye injuries and infections.

Wash bedding: Wash your towels and pillowcases daily when you have an eye infection, such as conjunctivitis. Since these substances come in contact with the infected eye, they can spread the infection to the other eye or cause somebody else in your family to develop an infection. Use hot water and detergent to kill any remaining bacteria.

Dispose of makeup: We all know that we shouldn’t share eye makeup, like mascara, eyeshadow, and eyeliner, to avoid things like eye infections. But you should also dispose of your own eye and face makeup, and makeup brushes, if you used them while you had an infected eye. This ensures that it will not be reinfected.

Symptoms and causes of watery eyes

Tears are important because they keep our eyes lubricated and prevent foreign particles and infections from entering. Watery eyes or epiphora, as it is called in medical terminology, is the condition in which tears overflow into the face instead of being drained by the nasolacrimal system. When this happens, your vision becomes blurry, affecting your daily activities.

This could be due to excessive tear production or poor tear drainage due to blocked tear ducts and can be due to a number of underlying reasons, some of which may necessitate consultation with an ophthalmologist.

Simply put, some of the reasons that can cause watery eyes to include:

  • Reaction to chemical fumes
  • Infectious conjunctivitis
  • Allergic conjunctivitis
  • Eye injuries
  • Trichiasis or ingrown eyelashes
  • Eyelid turned outward (ectropion) or inward (entropion)
  • Keratitis or infection of the cornea
  • Corneal ulcers
  • Styes
  • Bell’s palsy
  • Dry eyes
  • Certain medications
  • Environmental conditions such as dust, wind, cold, bright light, smog
  • Common cold, sinus problems, and allergies
  • Blepharitis or inflammation of the eyelid
  • Cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation

How to stop watery eyes

Tears remove toxins and foreign invaders, protect the surface of the eye, and provide nutrients to those who look. Something as simple as laughing or yawning can make your eyes water; You can also spend too much time in bright light or in front of screens. Neither of these is of great concern.

But creating too many tears can also be a harbinger of trouble. If you have watery eyes with changes in vision, pain, a lump near the tear duct, or the sensation of something in your eyes that does not go away, contact a medical professional. Also, seek help if the tear does not go away.

Prevention of watery eyes

To prevent eye infections, always use the following preventive measures:

  • Avoid touching your eyes directly
  • Wash your hands often, especially after touching dirty surfaces
  • If you wear contact lenses, always clean them and store them properly
  • Avoid sharing eye makeup or makeup brushes with other people
General Topics

Uses and Precautions of Genomic Medicine | Endocrinology

What is genomic medicine?

Genomic medicine is the study of our genes (DNA) and their communication with our health. Genomics investigates how a person’s biological info can be used to improve their clinical care and health outcomes (for example, through real diagnosis and personalized treatment.

While genetics looks at exact genes or groups of ‘letters’ along the DNA chain, genomics refers to the study of a person’s whole genetic makeup. It is about how they tell and react to each other and is associated with conditions that have a wider variety of triggers, such as diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and asthma.

How is genomics used in medicine?

Diagnosis: For example, when the cause of a variety of symptoms cannot be identified by any other means. Prenatal tests are done during pregnancy, either for screening (in case something is wrong with the baby) or when there is already a family history. Helps parents make informed decisions and plans for the future.

When there is a family history of serious genetic disorders, you can tell prospective parents whether they are carriers or not and if they can pass it on to their children. You can also tell someone if you are likely to develop the inherited condition later in life, even if you don’t have any symptoms yet.

To assess risk: A person’s genetic makeup can show their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Maybe they have high cholesterol levels or have vein problems. Possessing this knowledge means that they can achieve risk through medication, medical intervention, or by making positive existence changes.

Advances in genomic medicine

Several notable advances or achievements in genomic medicine are described below. However, further study of these issues beyond that provided in these summaries is warranted.

Precision medicine: The ultimate goal of precision medicine is that instead of a “one size fits all” approach by disease type, medicine will be based on a genetic understanding of the disease. Precision medicine not only involves studying the genome, but it also considers factors such as where a person lives, what they do, and what their family health history is.

The goal is to develop specific prevention or treatment approaches to help specific people stay healthy or get better rather than relying on approaches that are the same for everyone.

Precautions of genomic medicine

There are many aspects of genomic medicine that society must consider. For example, if a genomic medicine causes a disease with no known treatment, does it make sense to test people for that mutation before they develop symptoms? Also, some mutations cause an increased risk of disease, but that increased risk is very small compared to the risks of other factors such as diet and exercise.

Does it make sense to screen people for these kinds of changes when the change may not cause harm? How should this information be used? It is illegal for health insurance companies and employers to use genetic information to limit eligibility, set premiums, or discriminate against people without symptoms.

What is genetic counselling?

There are several types of service providers. In the UK, for example, the National Health Service employs 90 consultant clinical geneticists in 25 centres. They are supported by hundreds of specifically trained staff.5 Referral is usually done through a general practitioner (GP or family doctor) and is available to those concerned about a serious genetic family condition or a family tendency to develop cancer, or for parents of a child with learning disabilities and other developmental problems seeking expert evaluation.

In places where a public service is not available, or for those who choose to seek private healthcare treatment, check that the clinic you are using has the necessary registration (for example in the UK this is through the Care Commission for Quality, also known as CQC6) and the laboratory is also duly accredited.

Whatever the setting, the appointment may take some time and you may need to bring other members of your family with you. Your medical and family history will be mapped and explored, and you will likely have a medical exam as well. Finding out that there may be a life-changing or limiting condition in your future is a serious and, for some, traumatic experience.

Along with counselling, you may be offered tests (including blood tests), with the option to have them done the same day or, if you need time to think about the possible implications, come back at a later date. Results can take weeks or even months to recover (depending on the rarity of the genetic abnormality and how easy it is to find), but the results of prenatal tests will be returned much sooner.

Aftercare depends on the results and the nature of the test. Some people will be referred back to their family doctor along with all the details, or they can continue to receive treatment in a specialized unit. Those without symptoms will receive support and advice on lifestyle changes to minimize their risk, and advice on how to manage their possible condition in the future.

Several private companies offer genetic testing by mail. It involves taking a cheek swab or a blood sample at a local clinic. Then it is sent to the laboratory. The types of things that are tested include genetic risk for diabetes and heart conditions, as well as information about ancestry. Some companies provide more services than others, with counsellors or other healthcare professionals available to help. Convenient (but not necessarily cheap), it should be remembered that this is genetic testing without the usual level of holistic support found in established clinics.

General Topics

Overview of Diabetic Microvascular Complications | Endocrinology

Diabetic microvascular complications

Diabetic microvascular disease

The 3 main manifestations of diabetic microvascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy are reviewed.

Retinopathy: Diabetic microvascular disease is strongly associated with hyperglycemia. In the range of chronic hyperglycemia commonly seen in practice, there is an 11-fold increase in retinopathy compared to a 2-fold increase in coronary artery disease. Despite the importance of hyperglycemia, some patients may develop early evidence of retinopathy up to 7 years before the development of Frank’s type 2 diabetes mellitus, indicating the contribution of insulin resistance.

In addition to the severity of hyperglycemia and the duration of diabetes mellitus, other factors associated with retinopathy include hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia. These and other pathophysiological mechanisms, including insulin resistance and inflammation, contribute to the diabetic microvascular disease process.

The early histopathological sign of retinopathy related to diabetes mellitus is the loss of pericytes. Pericytes surround arterial and capillary endothelial cells and participate in the maintenance of capillary tone, growth, and resistance to damage from oxidative stress. Then the disease is characterized by hardening of the basement membrane, permeability of endothelial cells, and the formation of microaneurysms.

Broadly speaking, there are 2 types of retinopathy, non-proliferative (background), and diffuse. In nonproliferative retinopathy, patients may develop point bleeds, which are small hemorrhages in the middle of the retina surrounded by tight lipid exudates. Retinal edema can also be seen. Proliferative retinopathy is the development of neovascularization in the retina, which is complicated by vitreous hemorrhage. These later changes, without treatment, can lead to vision problems.

According to an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Survey, the prevalence of retinopathy in the diabetic population is 28.5% and the general risk of vision loss is 4.4%. Male gender, high levels of glycated hemoglobin, long duration of diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and insulin use are associated with the development of retinopathy. In a group of 35 studies of people with diabetes from around the world from 1980 to 2008, retinopathy was 35% prevalent in people aged 20 to 79 years, 7% for proliferative retinopathy, and 10% for vision threat.

Rates of retinopathy are higher for patients of African or Caribbean descent compared to Caucasians or South Asians. The presence of the diabetic microvascular disease is also a sign of contagious vascular disease. Diabetic patients with retinopathy have a higher rate of atherosclerosis than diabetic patients without retinopathy.

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the United States. It is responsible for 8% of the cases of legal blindness and 12% of the cases of blindness in the United States each year during the last decade of the 20th century. However, newer therapies have improved outcomes with a significantly reduced rate of acute visual impairment. Although the number of patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy has increased from 4 million to మి 5 million in the United States over the past few decades, the number of visually impaired diabetes mellitus patients decreased from 26% in 1997 to ≈19% in 2011, while the general visual disability in the civilian population was 9.3%. It is constant.

Systemic medical treatment plays an important role in diabetic microvascular disease and will be discussed later. 2 specific eye treatments slow the progression to blindness. Two clinical trials, the Diabetic Retinopathy Early Treatment Study and the Diabetic Retinopathy Study established macular and pan-retinal photocoagulation as the main treatment for these two eye problems. Recently, the use of injected vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists has been shown to improve outcomes in proliferative retinopathy and has become fashionable. The timing, use, and role of this treatment about photocoagulation have not been established and depend on the results of clinical studies.

Nephropathy: The pathophysiology of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus has many similarities to retinopathy, including hardening of the basement membrane and the formation of microaneurysms. Furthermore, glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with the proliferation of the extracellular matrix and the progression of tubular and glomerular sclerosis. These changes can cause albuminuria. Nephropathy is defined as a protein loss> 500 mg/day. Previously, microalbuminuria was defined as a loss of 299 mg / d28.

Neuropathy: The development of diabetic neuropathy is associated with vascular and non-vascular abnormalities. In addition to basement membrane hardening and percussion damage, there is evidence that capillary blood flow to C fibers is reduced, resulting in nerve perfusion and consequent endocrine hypoxia. Neuropathy is characterized by axonal hardening and eventual loss of neurons. Although there are 2 main types, the clinical manifestations of diabetic neuropathy can vary widely.

The most common is length-dependent, symmetric, chronic sensorimotor polyneuropathy, which is associated with the severity and duration of hyperglycemia. The pathophysiology of this subtype is similar to other microvascular manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Polyneuropathies that develop at more unpredictable times during diabetes mellitus are less likely to be symmetrical. Polyneuropathy is often accompanied by pain or spontaneous symptoms and can have a fluctuating course.

Medical therapy and diabetic microvascular disease

Clinical trials have shown that diabetic microvascular disease can be prevented or progressed by aggressive treatment of hyperglycemia and cardiovascular risk factors. Seminal trial Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) in glycemic control. In DCCT, 1,441 type 1 diabetic patients, 726 without retinopathy, and 715 with mild retinopathy were randomly assigned to routine or intensive glycemic monitoring and followed for more than 6.5 years.

Median hemoglobin A1c as a result of intensive monitoring was ~ 7%, compared with 9% in the general care group. Intensive treatment is associated with a 76% reduction in the development of retinopathy and a 56% reduction in the need for laser therapy in patients with mild retinopathy at baseline. Similarly, intensive therapy reduced the rate of microalbuminuria by 43% and neuropathy by 69%.

The benefits of lowering glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have also been demonstrated in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS). Diabetes and Vascular Disease in More Aggressive Glucose Control Action: Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Pretrox and Diamicron Modified Release (Advance) and Diabetes (ACCORD) Controlled Evaluation Trials. In both attempts, the intensive glycohemoglobin target gly6.5% arm was treated, some with modest benefits but not all signs of diabetic microvascular disease, which were not sufficient to change glycemic treatment goals.

Controlling blood pressure also reduces the likelihood of diabetic microvascular disease. A recent meta-analysis examined the effect of blood pressure control on diabetic retinopathy. The improved control of blood pressure resulted in an 18% reduction in the incidence of retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and a 22% reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast, no one has been identified. benefit in preventing the progression of retinopathy.

For nephropathy, some blood pressure agents are more effective. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce the incidence of nephropathy by 30% as determined by albuminuria42. Although there is no significant difference in blood pressure reduction, ACEIs are superior to calcium channel blockers. In contrast, the data supporting the efficacy of angiotensin receptor blockers are conflicting, with recent data being less positive than the initial studies.