Know About Gestational Diabetes | Endocrinology

Gestational diabetes

What is gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is a condition that is first noticed in a pregnant woman who did not have diabetes before she was pregnant. Diabetes is a condition in which the body does not make enough insulin or does not use insulin in general. Insulin is a hormone. Helps blood sugar (glucose) be used as fuel in body cells. When glucose can’t get into cells, it rises in the blood.

Damages blood vessels and nerves. It can damage the eyes, kidneys, and heart. In early pregnancy, high blood sugar can cause birth defects in the baby.

There are two types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. The body’s immune system damages the cells of the pancreas that make insulin.

Type 2 diabetes: This happens when the body cannot make enough insulin or cannot use it normally. It is

Causes of gestational diabetes

Some women develop diabetes before they get pregnant. this is often called pregestational diabetes. Other women can develop gestational diabetes. this is often called gestational diabetes. Pregnancy can change the way an adult female body uses glucose. It can exacerbate diabetes or cause gestational diabetes.

During pregnancy, the placenta provides nutrients and oxygen to the growing baby. The placenta also produces hormones. In late pregnancy, the hormones estrogen, cortisol, and human placental lactogen can inhibit insulin. When insulin is inhibited, it’s called insulin resistance. Glucose doesn’t enter the cells of the body. Glucose stays within the blood and causes blood glucose levels to rise.

Gestational diabetes. The level of glucose in the blood rises and other diabetic symptoms appear during pregnancy. It occurs in 100 to 9 out of 100 pregnant women.

Symptoms of gestational diabetes

Generally, you will not experience noticeable symptoms of gestational diabetes. Some women may experience mild symptoms:

  • Fatigue
  • Excessive thirst
  • Increased urgency and urinary frequency
  • Snoring
  • Weight gain

However, gestational diabetes increases the risk of other conditions.

One of the most serious is pre-eclampsia, which causes high blood pressure and can be fatal if not treated quickly.

Gestational diabetes is also associated with macrosomia, a condition in which your baby grows too large. Macrosomia is associated with an increased risk of emergency cesarean delivery.

Gestational diabetes occurs when your baby is born with low blood glucose. In the case of poorly controlled gestational diabetes, your baby is at risk of miscarriage.

Risk factors

Some women are at risk for gestational diabetes. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include the following:

  • Overweight and outstanding
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Previous gestational diabetes or prediabetes
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Diabetes in family members
  • She previously gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4.1 kilograms)
  • Race: Black, Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian American women are at increased risk of developing gestational diabetes.

Diagnosis of gestational diabetes

Since gestational diabetes usually has no symptoms, it can be diagnosed by a blood test. Your doctor may order a gestational diabetes screening test during your second trimester. If you have certain risk factors, you may have been tested earlier in your first trimester.

Screening can be done in two ways. The first is called the Glucose Challenge Test (GCT). During the test, you drink a sugar solution and draw blood an hour later.  If this result is high, a three-hour glucose test should be performed.

The second test option is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). During this test, you must fast and draw blood. Then you drink the sugar solution and check your blood glucose after an hour or two. If you keep one of these results, you will be diagnosed with gestational diabetes.

Treatment for gestational diabetes

Treatment for diabetes in pregnant includes:

  • Changes in lifestyle
  • Blood sugar monitoring
  • Medications, if needed

Maintaining your blood sugar levels can help you and your baby stay healthy. Close management can help you avoid problems during pregnancy and delivery.

Changes in lifestyle

Your lifestyle, how you eat and move around, is an important part of keeping your blood sugar levels in a healthy range. Doctors do not recommend losing weight during pregnancy; your body will work hard to help your growing baby. But your doctor can help you set weight gain goals based on your pre-pregnancy weight.

Healthy nutrition

A healthy diet focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins (foods high in nutrients and fiber, low in fat and calories) and is limited to refined carbohydrates, including sweets. A registered dietitian or diabetes educator can help you design an eating plan based on your current weight, pregnancy weight gain goals, blood sugar level, exercise habits, dietary preferences, and health. budget.

Be active

Regular physical activity plays a vital role in every woman’s health plan before, during, and after pregnancy. Exercise lowers blood sugar, and as a bonus, regular exercise can help eliminate some of the most common pregnancy discomforts, such as back pain, muscle cramps, bloating, constipation, and trouble sleeping.

With your doctor in mind, try to get 30 minutes of moderate exercise most days of the week. If you haven’t been active in a while, start slowly and build up gradually. Walking, biking and swimming are good options during pregnancy. Daily activities such as housework and gardening are also counted.

Check your blood sugar

When you are pregnant, your health care team may ask you to check your blood sugar four or more times a day, first thing in the morning, and after lunch, to make sure your level is within the healthy range.


Some doctors prescribe oral action to control blood sugar, while others believe that more research is needed to determine if oral medications are safe and as effective as injectable insulin in controlling gestational diabetes.

Close supervision of your baby

An important part of your treatment plan is closely monitoring your child. Your doctor can monitor your baby’s growth and development repeatedly with ultrasounds or other tests. If you are not going to work before your due date or sometimes earlier, your doctor may induce labor. Delivering after your due date increases the risk of problems for you and your baby.

Follow-up after delivery

Your doctor will monitor your blood sugar level after delivery and make sure your level is back to normal within six to 12 weeks. If your tests are normal, and for the most part, you should assess your risk for diabetes at least once every three years.


The best way to lower your risk of gestational diabetes is to stay healthy and prepare your body for pregnancy.

  • Work to improve your diet and eat a healthier diet
  • Establish a regular exercise routine
  • Consider losing weight

Talk to your doctor about the best way to lose weight, because even a few pounds can make a difference in your risk level for gestational diabetes.

If you are inactive, whether or not you are overweight, you should also do regular physical exercise at least three times a week. Exercise in moderation for at least 30 minutes at a time. Make a habit of a healthy diet that focuses on vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.

Once you are pregnant, don’t try to lose weight unless your doctor recommends it. Learn to lose weight safely while you are delinquent and pregnant.

If you had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy and are thinking of getting pregnant again, tell your doctor. They do early detection tests to identify your risk factors and make sure you have a healthy pregnancy.

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