Symptoms and Causes of Hypertension | Endocrinology


What is hypertension?

Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to serious health problems and increase your risk of heart disease, stroke, and sometimes death.

Blood pressure is the force that a person’s blood shows against the walls of their blood vessels. This pressure depends on the resistance of the blood vessels and the force with which the heart must work.

Half of the adults in the United States have high blood pressure, but most are unaware of this fact.

Blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including strokes, heart attacks, heart failure, and anorexia. Controlling blood pressure is essential to maintaining good health and reducing the risk of these dangerous conditions.

In this article, we explain why blood pressure rises, how to control it, and ways to keep it within the normal range.

Blood pressure is the force that blood circulation exerts against the walls of the body’s arteries, which are the main blood vessels in the body. Blood pressure when blood pressure is too high.

Blood pressure is written with two numbers. The first number (systolic) indicates the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart contracts or beats. The second number (diastolic) indicates the pressure in the vessels between beats of the heart.

When measured on two different days, the 2-day systolic blood pressure readings are ≥140 mmHg, and/or the 2-day diastolic blood pressure readings are ≥90 mmHg.

Types of hypertension

There are two types of hypertension, which include:

Primary hypertension

Primary blood pressure is also known as essential blood pressure. Many adults with high blood pressure fall into this category.

  • Despite years of research on blood pressure, a specific cause is unknown
  • Lifestyle factors include smoking, heavy alcohol use, stress, being overweight, eating too much salt, and not getting enough exercise

Changes to your diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of complications from high blood pressure and hypertension.

Secondary hypertension

Secondary hypertension when there is a recognizable and reversible cause of your hypertension.

Only 5 to 10 percent of blood pressure is secondary.

  • It is more common in the young.
  • The root causes of secondary hypertension are:
  • Adrenal gland disease
  • Side effects of birth control pills, diet aids, stimulants, antidepressants, and some over-the-counter medications
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Hormonal abnormalities
  • Thyroid abnormalities
  • Contraction of the aorta

Causes of hypertension

The exact causes of high blood pressure are unknown, but several things include:

  • Quit smoking
  • Being overweight
  • Lack of physical activity
  • More salt in the diet
  • Stress
  • Aging
  • Genetics
  • Family history of hypertension
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Adrenal and thyroid disorders
  • Sleep apnea

Symptoms of hypertension

Blood pressure is often referred to as the “silent killer,” meaning that a third of people with high blood pressure have no evidence of it. Most do not have symptoms of hypertension, and the person with hypertension may unknowingly suffer damage to some large organs such as the heart, brain, arteries, and kidneys.

Regular blood pressure testing is the only sure way to make sure your blood pressure is within the normal range.

Of course, hypertension happens when it’s at least expected, but if you pay attention to your body, it sends out some early signs of hypertension. Patients with complicated hypertension may experience:

  • Headache Blurred vision Shortness of breath
  • Warning signs depend on the severity and duration of the stress, so symptoms to look out for in patients with high blood pressure are:
  • Severe headache, chest pain, embarrassment when inhaling an irregular heartbeat

Risk factors

Common physical and hereditary risk factors for high blood pressure:

Family history: If your parents or other close blood relatives have high blood pressure, you are also more likely to have it.

Age: As you get older, you are more likely to have high blood pressure. As we age, our blood vessels gradually lose their elastic quality, which contributes to an increase in blood pressure. However, children can also develop high blood pressure. Learn more about children and high blood pressure.

Sex: Up to age 64, men are more likely to have a high blood pressure than women. Women 65 and older are more likely to have high blood pressure. Find out more about women and high blood pressure.

Ethnic African Americans develop higher blood pressure than people of any other ethnicity in the United States. It is more serious in African Americans, and some medications are less effective in treating high blood pressure in blacks.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD): High blood pressure can occur as a result of kidney disease. And having hypertension can also damage the kidneys.

Diagnosis of hypertension

To measure your blood pressure, your doctor or specialist will usually place an inflatable cuff around your arm and measure your blood pressure with a pressure gauge.

The blood pressure reading in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) consists of two numbers. When your heart beats (systolic pressure), the first number or the highest number measures the pressure in your arteries. The second number, or the least, measures the pressure between beats (diastolic pressure) in your arteries.

Blood pressure measurements are divided into four general categories:

Normal blood pressure It is normal if your blood pressure is less than 120/80 mm Hg.

Increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure is systolic pressure between 120 and 129 mm Hg and diastolic pressure less than 80 mm Hg. High blood pressure can get worse over time if steps are not taken to control blood pressure.

Stage 1 blood pressure. Stage 1 hypertension is a systolic pressure of 130 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure of 80 to 89 mm Hg.

Stage 2 blood pressure. For the most severe hypertension, stage 2 blood pressure is 140 mm Hg or higher systolic pressure or 90 mm Hg or higher diastolic pressure.

Both numbers are important in blood pressure reading. But after age 50, the systolic reading becomes more important. Discrete systolic blood pressure is when the diastolic pressure is normal (less than 80 mm Hg) but the systolic pressure is high (greater than or equal to 130 mm Hg). It is a common type of high blood pressure in people over 65 years of age.

Usually, you should measure your blood pressure with both hands to see if there is a difference. It is important to use a bracelet of the correct size.

Your doctor may ask you to record your blood pressure at home to provide additional information and to determine if you have high blood pressure.

Your doctor may recommend a 24-hour blood pressure monitoring test called an ambulatory blood pressure monitor to determine if you have high blood pressure. The device used for this test measures your blood pressure regularly over a 24-hour period and provides a more accurate picture of the average daytime and nighttime blood pressure changes. However, these devices are not available in all medical centers and are not reimbursable.

If you have any type of high blood pressure, your doctor will review your medical history and perform a physical exam.

Your doctor may also recommend routine tests, such as urinalysis (urinalysis), blood tests, cholesterol tests, an electrocardiogram, which measure the electrical activity of your heart. Your doctor may also recommend additional tests, such as an echocardiogram, to look for more signs of heart disease.

Treatment for hypertension

Changing your lifestyle can go an extended way in controlling high vital signs. Your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes:

  • Eating a heart-healthy diet with a little salt
  • Get regular physical activity
  • Maintain a healthy weight or reduce if you’re overweight or behind
  • Limit the quantity of alcohol you drink

But sometimes lifestyle changes aren’t enough. additionally, to diet and exercise, your doctor may prescribe medicine to lower your vital sign.

  • Your vital sign treatment goal depends on your health.
  • Your vital sign treatment goal should be but 130/80 mm Hg:
  • You are a healthy adult 65 years aged or older
  • You are a healthy adult under 65 who features a 10 percent or greater chance of developing heart conditions within the next ten years.
  • You have chronic renal disorder, diabetes, or arteria coronaria disease.

Even if your vital sign goal is 120/80 torr or less, doctors aren’t sure if you would like treatment (medicine) to succeed at that level.

If you’re 65 years aged or older and your use of medicines leads to low systolic vital signs (less than 130 mm Hg), you are doing not got to change your options if the medications don’t adversely affect your health or quality of life.

The type of drugs your doctor prescribes depends on your vital sign measurements and your other medical problems. this will help if you’re employed with a team of medical professionals who are experienced in treating high vital signs to develop a customized treatment plan.


Having a healthy lifestyle can assist you to prevent high vital signs. this suggests

  • Eat a healthy diet. To assist maintain your vital sign, you ought to limit the quantity of sodium (salt) you eat and increase the quantity of potassium in your diet. it’s also important to eat low-fat diets, also like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The DASH eating plan is an example of an eating plan which will help lower your vital sign.
  • Get regular exercise. Exercise can assist you to maintain a healthy weight and lower your vital sign. you ought to aim to urge a minimum of 2.5 hours of moderate-intensity aerobics per week or 1 hour and quarter-hour of intense intensity aerobics per week. aerobics, like brisk walking, is an exercise that creates your heart beat faster and uses more oxygen than usual.
  • Have a healthy weight. Being overweight or obese increases your risk of developing high vital signs. Maintaining a healthy weight can help control high vital signs and reduce the danger of other health problems.
  • Alcohol is restricted. Men should haven’t quite two drinks each day and ladies just one.
  • No Smoking. Smoking cigarettes raises your vital sign and increases your risk of attack and stroke. If you do not smoke, don’t start. If you smoke, ask your healthcare provider to assist you to discover the simplest thanks to quitting.
  • Managing stress. Learning to relax from stress can improve your physical and psychological state and lower high vital sign. Stress management practices include exercising, taking note of music, that specialize in those that are calm or relaxed, and meditating.
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