Risk Factors and Diagnosis of Presbyopia | Ophthalmology


What is presbyopia?

Presbyopia means that your eyes gradually lose the ability to see up close. This is a normal part of aging. In fact, the word “presbyopia” comes from the Greek word for “old eye.” After age 40, you may start to notice presbyopia. You will see that you save them to see the reading material clearly.

Even if you’ve never had a vision problem before, you can’t escape presbyopia. Your nearsightedness can be seen by wearing your normal glasses or contact lenses to correct farsightedness.

Many experts believe that presbyopia is caused by changes in the lens within the eye. As we age, the lens becomes harder and less elastic, making it difficult to focus on objects that are closer to the eye.

Why does it occur?

Although some people in their early forties began to have trouble reading or seeing things, in others it only happens much later. It is not clear why this is so. It is well known that people with medical conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or multiple sclerosis can develop presbyopia at a young age.

Women often start wearing reading glasses at an earlier age than men. This is because they tend to fix the problem quickly. There is no difference between men and women as to when presbyopia begins.


It causes the following symptoms:

  • Words appear fuzzy at a convenient reading distance.
  • Keep reading material or other objects out of sight for clarity or to see details.
  • You need bright light to see clearly (bright light restricts the pupils, which changes the focus of light on the retina).
  • You may find it difficult to read in the middle of the night or when you are tired or stressed.
  • Changing the shape of the lens may make your eyes uncomfortable due to pressure from your eye muscles, or you may feel tired or sleepy while working closely.
  • You may have a headache as a result of muscle tension.


Presbyopia arises from a problem with the lens of the eye, which is located behind the iris (the colored part) and the pupil. Refraction or bending of the lens and cornea (clear anterior layer) of the eye – incoming light – focusing directly on the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye).

The retina converts light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain, which then interprets the signals into images. When a person is young, the lens is soft and flexible. The small muscles of the eye can easily change shape and, as a result, the focus on the lens, a process called accommodation.

But with age, the elasticity of the lens and the surrounding muscle fibers begin to decrease, resulting in a gradual loss of accommodation. Instead of focusing light on the retina, the lens focuses light behind the retina, affecting your ability to see objects up close.

Risk factors

Some factors can help you develop presbyopia, including:

  • Age: Age is a major risk factor for presbyopia. Almost everyone experiences some form of presbyopia after the age of 40.
  • Other medical conditions: Having certain diseases, such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or cardiovascular disease, increases the risk of premature presbyopia, which is presbyopia in people younger than 40 years old.
  • Drugs: Some medications, including antidepressants, antihistamines, and diuretics, have been linked to symptoms of premature presbyopia.


Your optometrist or ophthalmologist will evaluate your eye in a comprehensive exam. If you already wear glasses or contact lenses, they can let you know if you need a new prescription.

Since presbyopia is an ongoing process, your prescription is likely to change significantly between the ages of 45 and 65. It is recommended that you have an eye exam every 2 to 3 years.

Presbyopia can be diagnosed as part of a comprehensive eye exam. A routine exam includes tests to evaluate your eyes for diseases and vision defects. Your students will be dissected with special eye drops to allow your doctor to examine the inside of their eyes.


Presbyopia is not curable. But today you can choose from a wide variety of options to correct your vision. Discuss the best option for you with your ophthalmologist. Depending on your overall health and lifestyle, your provider may prescribe any of the following, including prescription glasses, contact lenses, reading glasses, progressive addition lenses, bifocals, or a variety of eye surgeries.

There is no cure for it. But there are many ways to improve it.

Readers: Yes, the cheapest glasses you see at the drugstore can often do the trick. Choose the weakest pair that will allow you to see what you need to read.

Bifocals work for most people: If you already have glasses, this may be the option for you. They are glasses with two different prescriptions on the same lens. The upper bouts featured two cutouts, to facilitate access to the higher frets. The lower section helps you get a closer look at objects.

Trifocals: Trifocals have three lenses: a close-up, one in the middle, and one to look away. Progressive lenses are similar to bifocals, but there is a gradual or mixed transition between the two prescriptions rather than specific sections.

Contact lenses:

  • Some people prefer to wear contact lenses instead of glasses. There are two types of contact lenses that can help with presbyopia.
  • Monovision contacts: These correct one eye for distance vision and the other for near vision. You have to adapt to the monovision lenses and train your brain to see this way. With monovision lenses, you can lose the ability to determine the distance or speed of something.
  • Multifocal contacts: These lenses have many rings or zones at different energies. With this design, you are using near and far vision at the same time. However, your brain learns to automatically choose the correct focus for what you want to see. You may find that wearing a multifocal lens makes your vision less sharp than when using a single vision lens.

Surgery: If you do not want to wear glasses or contact lenses for presbyopia, there are also several surgical options available to treat presbyopia. A popular presbyopia correction procedure is corneal incision alignment.

Typically inserted in the cornea of the eye that’s not your dominant eye, a corneal inlay extends the depth of focus of the treated eye and decreases the need for reading glasses without significantly changing the quality of your distance vision.

The first step in seeing if you are a good candidate for presbyopia surgery is consulting with a refractive surgeon who specializes in a comprehensive eye exam and surgical correction of presbyopia.


Presbyopia aggravates myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. Presbyopia problems include hyperopia (an abnormal condition in which the vision of distant objects is better than that of nearby objects) or refractive errors of the eye.


Presbyopia cannot be prevented. It is a natural aging process that makes hair look gray. There are so many options today for the correction of presbyopia and there is no way to adapt all the methods. You should consider your lifestyle, work habits, and personal needs, and your doctor can determine the best way to accommodate the available options.

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