Symptoms and Causes of Hyperglycemia | Endocrinology


What is hyperglycemia?

Hyperglycemia or high blood glucose occurs when your blood sugar is high. This happens when your body has too little insulin (the hormone that carries glucose to the blood) or if your body is not using insulin correctly. This condition is most often associated with diabetes.

Hyperglycemia when your blood sugar is above 125 mg / dL (milligrams per deciliter) (do not eat for at least eight hours; a person with a blood sugar above 125 mg / dL has diabetes).

A person has blood glucose intolerance or prediabetes of 100 mg / dL to 125 mg / dL during fasting.

A person has hyperglycemia if they have an1 hour or 2 hours to eat if their blood glucose is above 180 mg / dL.

If you have hyperglycemia and it is not treated for a long time, it can damage your nerves, blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Damage to blood vessels increases the risk of heart attack and stroke, and damage to nerves can also lead to eye damage, kidney damage, and untreated injury.

Symptoms of hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia does not cause symptoms until glucose levels rise significantly, typically 180 to 200 milligrams per milliliter (mg / dL) or 10 to 11.1 millimoles (mmol / L) per liter. Symptoms of hyperglycemia develop slowly over several days or weeks. The higher the blood sugar levels, the more severe the symptoms become. However, some people with chronic type 2 diabetes may not have any symptoms despite high blood sugar levels.

Early signs and symptoms

By recognizing the early signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia, you can treat the condition right away. Search:

  • Frequent urination
  • Increased thirst
  • Blurry vision
  • Fatigue
  • Headache

The following are the signs and symptoms, If untreated, hyperglycemia can lead to the formation of toxic acids (ketones) in the blood and urine (ketoacidosis).

  • Fruity-smelling breath
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Dry mouth
  • Weakness
  • Confusion
  • Eat
  • Abdominal pain

Causes of hyperglycemia

During digestion, your body breaks down carbohydrates from foods like bread, rice, and pasta into various sugar molecules. One of these sugar molecules is glucose, which is your body’s main source of energy. Glucose is absorbed directly into the bloodstream after eating, but it does not enter most tissue cells without the help of insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas.

As your blood glucose level rises, it signals your pancreas to release insulin. Insulin unlocks your cells so glucose can enter and provide the fuel your cells need to function properly. Any excess glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. This process reduces the amount of glucose in the bloodstream and prevents it from reaching dangerously high levels. When your blood sugar level returns to normal, your pancreas secretes insulin.

Diabetes can dramatically reduce the effects of insulin in your body. This may be because your pancreas cannot produce insulin (type 1 diabetes), or that your body is resistant to the effects of insulin or does not produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels (type 2 diabetes). As a result, glucose rises in the bloodstream (hyperglycemia) and can reach dangerous levels if not treated properly. Insulin or other drugs are used to lower blood sugar.

Risk factors of hyperglycemia

 Main risk factors for hyperglycemia:

  • You have a family history of type 2 diabetes.
  • You are overweight
  • You have high blood pressure or cholesterol
  • You have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • You have a history of gestational diabetes

Treatment for hyperglycemia

If you have diabetes and notice the first signs of high blood sugar, check your blood sugar and call a doctor. It may ask you for the results of multiple readings. You can recommend the following changes:

Drink more water: Water helps remove excess sugar from the blood through urine and helps prevent dehydration.

Do more exercise: Exercising lowers blood sugar. But in some cases, it can lead to high blood sugar. Ask your doctor what type of exercise is right for you.

Warning: If you have type 1 diabetes and your blood sugar is high, you should check your urine for ketones. When you have ketones, don’t exercise. If you have type 2 diabetes and your blood sugar is high, you should also make sure there are no ketones in your urine and that you are well hydrated. Then your doctor may authorize you to exercise carefully enough.

Change your eating habits: You may need to see a dietitian change the amount and type of food you eat.

Change medications: Your doctor may change the amount, schedule, or type of diabetes medicine you take. Don’t make changes without talking to her first. If you have type 1 diabetes and your blood sugar is above 250 mg / dL, your doctor may want to test your urine or blood for ketones.

Complications of hyperglycemia

Chronic problems: Keeping your blood sugar in a healthy range can help prevent diabetes-related problems. Chronic complications of untreated hyperglycemia include:

  • Heart disease
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy)
  • Kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy) or kidney failure
  • Damage to the blood vessels in the retina (diabetic retinopathy), which can lead to blindness
  • Clouds of the normally clear lens in your eye (cataracts)
  • Foot problems caused by damaged nerves or blood flow Severe skin conditions, ulceration, and in some severe cases, amputation
  • Bone and joint problems
  • Tooth and gum infections
  • Emergency problems
  • If your blood sugar level rises high enough or for a long time, it can lead to two serious conditions.

Diabetic ketoacidosis: Diabetic ketoacidosis develops when there is not enough insulin in your body. When this happens, sugar (glucose) does not enter your cells for energy. Your blood sugar level rises and your body begins to break down fat for energy.

This process produces toxic acids called ketones. Excess ketones build up in the blood and eventually “spill” into the urine. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to a diabetic coma and be fatal.

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state: This condition occurs when people produce insulin, but it doesn’t work properly. Blood glucose levels can be very high – more than 1000 mg / dL (55.6 mmol / L). The body does not use glucose or fat for energy due to dysfunction despite insulin.

The glucose is then excreted in the urine, which increases urination. If left untreated, the diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar condition can lead to fatal dehydration and coma. Urgent medical attention is required.

Prevention of hyperglycemia

If you work to control your blood sugar, follow your meal plan, exercise program, and schedule, you don’t have to worry about hyperglycemia. Equally:

  • Know your diet
  • Count the total carbohydrates at each meal and breakfast
  • Check your blood sugar level regularly
  • Tell your doctor if you have abnormal blood sugar readings
  • Wear a medical ID so people know you have diabetes in an emergency
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