Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Disease | Endocrinology

Thyroid Disease

What is thyroid disease?

Thyroid disease is a general term for a medical condition that prevents the thyroid from getting the proper amount of hormones. Your thyroid normally makes hormones that your body normally works with. When your thyroid makes too much thyroid hormone, your body uses up energy very quickly. This is called hyperthyroidism. Using energy too fast can make you feel tired, it can make your heart beat faster, it can cause you to lose weight without trying, and it can make you feel nervous. On the other hand, the thyroid produces very little thyroid hormone. This is called hypothyroidism. When there is too little thyroid hormone in your body, it can make you tired, you can gain weight, and you can’t even tolerate the cold temperature.

These two main disorders can be caused by a variety of conditions. They can also be inherited (inherited) by families.

Thyroid disorders are conditions that affect the thyroid gland, which is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck. The thyroid plays an important role in regulating many metabolic processes throughout the body. Different types of thyroid disorders affect their structure or function.

The thyroid gland surrounds the windpipe below Adam’s apple. The thinnest area of tissue in the center of the gland, called the isthmus, meets the two thyroid lobes on either side. The thyroid uses iodine to make important hormones. The main hormone produced by the thyroxine gland, also known as T4. After delivery through the bloodstream to body tissues, a small portion of the T4 released by the gland is converted to triiodothyronine (T3), the most active hormone.

The function of the thyroid gland is regulated by the brain. When thyroid hormone levels are low, the hypothalamus in the brain produces a hormone called thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which causes the pituitary gland (located at the base of the brain) to release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to release more T4.

Since the thyroid gland is regulated by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus, defects in these tissues can also affect thyroid function and cause thyroid diseases.

Causes of thyroid disease

Both conditions are caused by other diseases that affect the functioning of the thyroid gland.

Conditions that can cause hypothyroidism:

Thyroiditis: This condition is an inflammation (inflammation) of the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis reduces the number of hormones your thyroid makes.

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: A painless disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune condition in which cells in the body attack and damage the thyroid. This is a hereditary condition. This is usually a temporary situation.

Iodine deficiency: The thyroid disease uses iodine to make hormones. Iodine deficiency is a problem that affects millions of people around the world.

Dysfunctional thyroid gland: Sometimes the thyroid gland does not work properly from birth. It affects 1 in 4,000 newborns. If left untreated, children can have physical and mental problems in the future. All newborns have a blood test in the hospital to check their thyroid function.

Conditions that can cause hyperthyroidism:

Graves’ disease: In this condition, the entire thyroid gland is overactive and produces more hormones. This problem is also known as a diffuse toxic goiter (an enlarged thyroid gland).

Nodules: Hyperthyroidism is caused by overactive nodules within the thyroid. A single nodule is called a toxic autonomic thyroid nodule, while a gland with many nodules is called a toxic multinodular goiter.

Thyroiditis: This disorder can be painful or not felt at all. In thyroiditis, the thyroid releases hormones stored there. It can be a few weeks or months.

Excess iodine: When your body has too much iodine (a mineral used to make thyroid hormones), the thyroid makes more thyroid hormones than it needs. Excess iodine can be found in some medications (amiodarone, heart medications) and cough syrups.

Symptoms & signs of thyroid disease

Even if your thyroid gland is deep in your neck, your dermatologist may be the first doctor to notice signs of thyroid disease.

It can also diagnose thyroid disease and that is important. In the initial grip, treatment can prevent problems. When thyroid disease is not treated for years, it can lead to dangerous slow (or fast) heart palpitations, trauma that refuses to heal, or excruciating pain. You can gain or lose weight for no apparent reason.

To help you spot early (and not so early) signs of thyroid disease in your skin, hair, and nails, here is a checklist.

  • Dry, pale, and cold skin
  • Moist, velvety, and warm skin like a baby’s
  • Dry skin with deep cracks and scales
  • Deep, recognizable lines on your palms and soles
  • Yellow-orange color in palms and soles
  • Dirty and puffy face, especially on the eyelids, lips, and tongue
  • Dilating the nose
  • Slow-healing wounds
  • Sweat less (or more) than before
  • Goiter (swelling in the neck)
  • Bulging eyes
  • Redness of the face and red palms
  • The skin darkens in the folds of the palms of the hands, on the gums, or anywhere else in the mouth
  • Rash, especially in the folds of the skin
  • Painless lumps and scales, pale skin, and affected skin feel tight and waxy
  • Red spots appear on the skin

Risk factors for thyroid disease

Risk factors for thyroid disease which include:

  • Smoking, like tobacco, contains substances that affect the thyroid gland, causing inflammation and inhibiting the absorption of iodine, as well as the production of thyroid hormones
  • Psychological stress such as divorce or the loss of a friend or family member
  • Injury or injury to the thyroid
  • History of high dose use of certain medications such as lithium (used in most mood stabilizers) and iodine
  • It shows the levels of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream and is an important step in correctly diagnosing and treating your condition 

Diagnosis of thyroid disease

Sometimes thyroid disease is difficult to diagnose because symptoms can easily be mistaken for other conditions. You may experience similar symptoms when you are pregnant or in old age and you may also have them when you have thyroid disease. Fortunately, there are tests that can help determine if your symptoms are due to a thyroid problem. These tests include:

  • Blood test
  • Imaging tests
  • Physical exams
  • Blood test

One of the most accurate ways to diagnose a thyroid problem is through blood tests. Thyroid blood tests are used to determine if your thyroid gland is working properly by measuring the number of thyroid hormones in your blood. These tests are done by drawing blood from a vein in the hand. Thyroid blood tests are used to find out if you have:

  • Thyroiditis
  • Graves’ disease
  • Hashimoto’s disease
  • Thyroid nodule
  • Thyroid cancer

These include specific blood tests done to evaluate your thyroid:

Including T4 and T3, in the bloodstream. This is the first test your provider will do to check for a thyroid hormone imbalance. Most of the time, thyroid hormone deficiency (hypothyroidism) is associated with a high TSH level, while an excess of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism) is associated with a low TSH level. If TSH is abnormal, thyroid hormones, including thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), can be directly measured to further assess the problem. Typical TSH in adults: 0.40 – 4.50 mIU / mL (milli-international units per liter of blood).

T4 – Used to monitor thyroxine tests for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and to treat the treatment of thyroid disorders. Low T4 is seen with hypothyroidism, while high T4 levels indicate hyperthyroidism. Typical adult T4 range: 5.0 – 11.0 ug / dL (micrograms per deciliter of blood).

FT4: Free T4 or Free Thyroxine is a T4 measurement method that eliminates the effect of proteins that naturally bind to T4 and can prevent accurate measurement. Typical FT4 range in adults: 0.9 – 1.7 ng / dL (nanograms per deciliter of blood).

T3: Triiodothyronine tests can help diagnose hyperthyroidism or show the severity of hyperthyroidism. Low T3 levels can be seen in hypothyroidism, but most of the time this test is useful in the diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism, where T3 levels are elevated. Typical T3 range: 100-200 ng / dL (nanograms per deciliter in blood).

FT3: Free T3 or Free Triiodothyronine is a T3 measurement method that eliminates the effect of proteins that naturally bind to T3 and can prevent accurate measurement. Typical FT3 range: 2.3 – 4.1 pg / mL (picograms per milliliter of blood).

These tests are not only intended to diagnose any disease but may require your healthcare provider to perform additional tests to evaluate the thyroid disorder.

Imaging tests

In most cases, examining the thyroid can answer many questions. Your healthcare provider can perform an imaging test called a thyroid scan. It allows your provider to view your thyroid to check for an increase in size, shape, or growth (nodules).

Your provider may also use an imaging test called an ultrasound. It is a pathological process

Treatment for thyroid disease

Returning thyroid hormone levels to normal is the goal of your healthcare provider. It can be done in different ways, and each specific treatment depends on the cause of your thyroid condition.

If you have high levels of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism), treatment options include:

  • Antithyroid drugs (methimazole and propyltyrosyl): These are drugs that stop the production of thyroid hormones.
  • Radioactive iodine: This treatment damages your thyroid cells, preventing them from producing high levels of thyroid hormones.
  • Beta-blockers: These drugs do not change the number of hormones in your body, but they do help control your symptoms.
  • Surgery: For more permanent treatment, your healthcare provider may surgically remove your thyroid (thyroidectomy). Stop creating hormones. However, you will need to take thyroid-replenishing hormones throughout your life.
  • Thyroid Reconstruction Drug: This is a synthetic (man-made) way of returning thyroid hormones to your body. A commonly used drug is levothyroxine. By using a drug in use, you can control your thyroid disease and lead a normal life.

Prevention of thyroid disease

  • Avoid processed foods: Many chemicals can alter the production of thyroid hormones. What kinds of processed foods should be avoided; They are on the verge of a thyroid disorder.
  • Avoid soy: Limit soy intake when hormone production changes
  • Quit smoking: The toxins released from smoking make the thyroid gland sensitive, which can lead to thyroid disorders
  • Reduce stress: Stress is a leading cause of many health problems, including thyroid disease
  • Diet for patients with thyroid disorder: Follow the thyroid diet below to prevent or prevent thyroid problems
  • What to bring: Yogurt, seaweed, nuts, milk, chicken, fish, eggs, red fruits, cauliflower, and kale.

Thyroid disorders are easy to manage. With a little help from medications and a few simple lifestyle changes, you can easily lead a normal life. Regular physical activity is very important to stay healthy and fit. Follow a healthy diet and make sure you don’t skip any medications. In addition, regular preventive health check-ups can help keep track of our body’s nutritional levels and health.

A quick and complete health check of the body will give you a complete state of health. If you have any further questions about thyroid disorders or would like to choose a health test for yourself or your loved ones, please contact the concerned doctor.

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