Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes | Endocrinology

Diabetes

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar stages. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into cells to store or use for energy. With diabetes, your group either doesn’t make sufficient insulin or can’t use the insulin it makes effectively.

High blood sugar caused by untreated diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs.

Symptoms

Symptoms of diabetes vary depending on the high blood sugar level. Some people, especially those with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes, may not initially experience symptoms. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to come on rapidly and be more simple.

  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Extreme hunger
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a by-product of the breakdown of muscles and fat that occurs when not enough insulin is available)
  • fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Blurry vision
  • Slow-healing sores
  • Frequent infections, such as gum or covering infections and vaginal infections

Type 1 diabetes can change at any age, though it often appears during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, the most common type, can develop at any age, although it is most common in people over the age of 40.

Types

Type 1 diabetes: This type occurs when the body does not produce insulin. People with type 1 diabetes are insulin reliant on, which means they must take artificial insulin daily to stay alive.

Type 2 diabetes: It touches the way the body uses insulin. Although the body still produces insulin, the body’s cells do not return to it as effectively as before. This is the most common type of diabetes, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and has strong links to obesity.

Gestational diabetes: This type occurs in women during pregnancy when the body may become less sensitive to insulin. It does not occur in all women and usually resolves after delivery.

Causes

You must first understand how glucose is usually treated in the body.

How insulin works

Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland overdue and below the stomach (pancreas).

  • The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream
  • Insulin circulates, permitting sugar to enter your cells
  • Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in the blood
  • As your blood sugar level beads, so does the discharge of insulin from your pancreas

The role of glucose

Glucose and sugar is the source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues.

  • Glucose comes from two key sources: nutrition and the liver.
  • Sugar is riveted into the bloodstream, where it enters cells with the help of insulin.
  • Your liver stores and produces glucose.
  • When your glucose levels are low, such as when you haven’t eaten in a while, your liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose level within a normal range.

Causes of type 1 diabetes

What is known is that your immune system, which normally fights off harmful bacteria or viruses, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This leaves you with little or no insulin. In its place of being transported into cells, sugar builds up in the bloodstream.

Type 1 is believed to be caused by a grouping of genetic susceptibility and environmental aspects, although it is not yet clear what exactly those factors are. Weight is not supposed to be a factor in type 1.

Causes of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

In prediabetes, which can lead to type 2 diabetes, and in type 2, cells become resistant to the action of insulin and the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance. In its place of moving into cells where it is needed for energy, sugar builds up in the circulation.

It is not known exactly why this happens, although it is believed that genetic and environmental factors also play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Being overweight is strongly linked to the development of type 2, but not all people with type 2 are overweight.

Causes of gestational diabetes

During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to support your pregnancy. These hormones make your cells more resistant to insulin.

Normally, your pancreas replies by producing enough extra insulin to overcome this confrontation. But sometimes your pancreas can’t keep up. When this happens, too little glucose enters the cells and too much remains in the blood.

Risk factors

 

Type 1 diabetes: It is believed to be caused by an immune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake). The risk factors for type 1 diabetes are not as clear-cut as those for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Known risk factors include:

  • Family history: Consuming a parent, brother, or sister with type 1.
  • Age: You can get type 1 at any age, but it is most likely to develop when you are a child, teenager, or young adult.

Type 2 diabetes: You are at risk of emerging type 2 if:

  • You have prediabetes
  • Have overweight
  • You are 45 years old or older
  • You have a parental, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes
  • Get physical activity less than 3 times a week
  • Have you ever had gestational diabetes or had a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds?
  • Are African American, Hispanic / Latin American, American Indian, or Alaska Native (some Pacific Islanders and Asian Americans are also at higher risk)

If you have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, you might also be at risk.

You can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes with simple, proven lifestyle changes, such as losing weight if you are overweight, eating healthier, and getting regular physical activity.

You can prevent or reverse prediabetes with simple, proven lifestyle changes, such as losing weight if you are overweight, eating healthier, and getting regular physical activity. The CDC-led National Diabetes Prevention Program can help you type healthy variations that have lasting results.

Gestational diabetes: You are at risk of developing gestational diabetes if:

  • Had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy.
  • You have given birth to a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds.
  • Have overweight.
  • You are over 25 years old.
  • You have family antiquity of type 2 diabetes.
  • You have a hormonal disorder called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
  • You are African American, Hispanic / Latin American, American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander.

Gestational diabetes usually goes away after your baby is born, but it increases your risk for type 2 diabetes later in life. Your baby is more likely to be obese as a child or teenager and is also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life.

Diagnosis

It is diagnosed by fasting sugar blood tests or A1c blood tests, also known as glycated hemoglobin tests. A fasting blood sugar test is done after you have not had anything to eat or drink for at least eight hours. Normal fasting blood sugar is not as much as 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol / l). You do not essential to be fasting for an A1c blood test.

Your blood sugar level is equal to or higher than 126 mg/dl (7 mmol / l).

  • You have two randomized blood sugar tests greater than 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol / l) with symptoms.
  • You have an oral glucose tolerance test with results greater than 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol / l).
  • Your A1c test is higher than 6.5 percent on two separate days.

An A1c test must be performed in a laboratory using a method that is certified by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) and standardized for the Diabetes Control and Complications Assay (DCCT) assay.

Treatment

The main goal in treating type 1 and type 2 diabetes is to control blood sugar (glucose) levels within the normal range, with minimal variations at low or high levels.

Type 1 is treated with:

  • Insulin,
  • Exercise and
  • Diet for type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 is treated:

  • First with weight reduction, a diet for type 2 diabetes, and exercise
  • Diabetes medications (oral or injected) are prescribed when these measures fail to control the high blood sugar levels of type 2 diabetes
  • If other medications developed ineffective, insulin treatment can be started

Prevention

How can I prevent or delay the beginning of type 2 diabetes?

  • Lose weight and keep it off
  • Follow a healthy eating plan
  • Exercise regularly
  • Don’t smoke
  • Talk to your healthcare provider to see if there is anything else you can do to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes
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