What is Type 2 Diabetes and it’s Preventive Measures | Endocrinology

Type 2 Diabetes

Overview of type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong disease that prevents your body from using insulin. Middle-aged or older people are more likely to develop this type of diabetes, which is called adult-onset diabetes. But type 2 diabetes also affects children and adolescents, mainly due to childhood obsolescence.

This is the most common type of diabetes. The USA With Type 2 There are about 29 million people in. Another 84 million people have prediabetes, which means they have high blood sugar (or blood glucose) but not as high as diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), an important source of fuel for your body.

With type 2 diabetes, your body does not make enough insulin, the hormone that regulates the movement of sugar in your cells, or enough to maintain normal glucose levels.

Type 2 diabetes is also known as adult-onset diabetes, but more and more children are suffering from this disorder today, probably due to the rise in childhood obesity. There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating right, and exercising can help control the disease. If diet and exercise are not enough to maintain your blood sugar level properly, you may also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.

Causes of type 2 diabetes

Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin. It helps your cells convert a type of sugar called glucose from the food you eat into energy. First, your pancreas produces more insulin to carry glucose to your cells. But in the end, you can’t go on, and instead, your blood glucose will rise.

In general, a combination of factors can cause type 2 diabetes. They can include:

  • Genes Scientists have discovered different types of BNA that affect the way your body makes insulin.
  • Extra weight: Being overweight or balanced can lead to insulin resistance, especially if you carry the extra pounds around your waist.
  • Metabolic syndrome: People with insulin resistance have a group of conditions, such as high blood sugar levels, excess fat around the waist, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol and triglycerides.
  • Excess glucose from your liver: When your blood sugar is low, your liver makes and sends glucose. After eating, your blood sugar rises and your liver usually slows down and then stores your glucose. But some livers don’t. They keep the sugar out.
  • Bad communication between cells. Sometimes cells send wrong signals or don’t receive messages correctly. These problems are the way cells make and affect insulin or glucose, a chain reaction that can lead to diabetes.
  • Broken beta cells: If the cells that produce insulin pump the wrong amount of insulin at the right time, the blood sugar will be flushed out. High blood sugar levels can also damage these cells.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes are so mild that you may not notice them. Approximately 8 million people who own it do not know it. features:

  • Very thirsty
  • Being very
  • Appearing cloudy
  • Being a joker
  • Tingling or numbness in your arms or legs
  • Fatigue/feeling exhausted
  • Unhealed wounds
  • Yeast infections keep coming back
  • Hungry
  • Weight loss without trying
  • Coming soon with more infections
  • Dark rashes around the neck or armpits (called acanthosis nigricans) are often a sign of insulin resistance.

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes

Researchers do not fully understand why some people develop prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, while others do not. It is clear that some factors increase the risk, however,

  • The more fatty tissue you have, the more resistant your cells will be to insulin.
  • If you are less active, your risk is higher. Physical activity helps you control your weight, uses glucose for energy, and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.
  • Family history. If your parents or siblings have type 2 diabetes, you are at higher risk.
  • Race or ethnicity: While it is not clear why, some, including blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asian Americans, are at higher risk.
  • Your risk increases as you get older. This may be because you exercise less, lose muscle mass, and gain weight as you age. But type 2 diabetes is also increasing in children, teens, and young adults.
  • Gestational diabetes: If you develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy, you increase your risk of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. If you deliver a baby who weighs more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms), you are also at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome: For women, having polycystic ovary syndrome, a common condition like irregular menstruation, excessive hair growth, and esophagus, increases the risk of diabetes.
  • Having a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mm Hg (mm Hg) increases the risk of type 2 diabetes.
  • Abnormal levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. If you have low-density lipoprotein (HDL) or “good” cholesterol, your risk of type 2 diabetes is higher. Triglycerides are a type of fat that is carried in the blood. People with high triglyceride levels are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Your doctor can tell you what your cholesterol and triglyceride levels are.

Type 2 diabetes preventive measures

You have learned that you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes. You may be overweight or have a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes. You may have gestational diabetes, which is diabetes that develops during pregnancy. These are just a few examples of the factors that increase your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Prediabetes can also cause health problems. If you have diabetes for a long time, you are more likely to have health problems, so delaying diabetes for a few years is good for your health. You can help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by losing weight by following a low-calorie eating plan and being physically active most days of the week. Ask your doctor if you need to take diabetes methadone metformin NIH external link to help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.

Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed by:

  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test: Normal levels are less than 5.7 per cent and a result between 5.7 and 6.4 per cent is considered prediabetes. If your A1C level is 6.5 per cent or higher on two different tests, it means you have diabetes.

If the A1C test is not available or if you have certain conditions, such as abnormal hemoglobin (known as variant hemoglobin), that interfere with the A1C test, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes:

  • Random blood sugar test: Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per millilitre (mg / dL) or millimoles (mmol / L) per litre. A blood sample that shows that your blood sugar is 200 mg / dL (11.1 mmol / L) or more, regardless of the last time you ate, indicates diabetes, especially if you have signs and symptoms of diabetes such as frequent urination and extreme thirst.
  • Fasting blood sugar test: It is normal to read less than 100 mg / dL (5.6 mmol / L). Levels of 100 to 125 mg / dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol / L) are considered prediabetes.

If your fasting blood sugar is 126 mg / dL (7 mmol / L) or more on two separate tests, you have diabetes.

  • Oral glucose tolerance test: This test is used less often than others, except during pregnancy. You should fast at night and then drink liquid sugar in the doctor’s office. Blood sugar levels are checked periodically for the next two hours.

Your blood sugar level is less than 140 mg / dL (7.8 mmol / L). Readings between 140 and 199 mg / dL (7.8 mmol / L and 11.0 mmol / L) indicate prediabetes. A reading of 200 mg / dL (11.1 mmol / L) or more after two hours indicates diabetes.

Especially if you are overweight. If the results are out of bounds, ask your doctor when to return for another test. Screening is also recommended for those under 45 and overweight if they have a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of type 2 diabetes, a personal history of gestational diabetes or other heart diseases, or diabetes risk factors such as blood pressure above 140 /. 90 millimetres of mercury (mm Hg).

If you are diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may run other tests to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, because the two conditions often require different treatments.

After diagnosis

A1C levels should be checked two to four times a year. Discuss your A1C goal with your doctor, as this can vary based on your age and other factors. For most people, the American Diabetes Association recommends an A1C level of less than 7 per cent. Elevated A1C levels indicate the need for a change in your medication, eating plan, or activity level.

In addition to the A1C test, your doctor will measure your blood pressure and periodically take blood and urine samples to monitor your cholesterol levels, thyroid function, liver function, and kidney function. Regular eye and foot exams are also important.

More information

  • A1C test
  • Glucose tolerance test

Type 2 diabetes treatment

These include managing type 2 diabetes:

  • Weightloss
  • Healthy foods
  • Exercise regularly
  • Perhaps diabetes medications or insulin therapy
  • Blood sugar monitoring

These steps can help keep your blood sugar near normal, which can delay or prevent problems.


Weight loss will be followed by constant fatigue and tiredness. Losing just 5 to 10 per cent of your body weight makes a difference, although losing 7 per cent or more of your starting weight seems ideal. That means anyone weighing 180 pounds (82 kilograms) would have to lose less than 13 pounds (5.9 kilograms) to have an impact on blood sugar levels.

Controlling the components and eating a healthy diet are common ways to start losing weight.

Healthy foods

However, it is important to focus on your diet:

  • Low in calories
  • Low refined carbohydrates, especially sweets.
  • Low in saturated fat
  • More vegetables and fruits
  • High fibre foods

A registered dietitian can help you create an eating plan that is tailored to your health goals, food preferences, and lifestyle. He or she can teach you how to control your carbohydrate intake and tell you how many carbohydrates to consume with your meals and snacks to keep your blood sugar levels more stable.

Physical activity

Everyone needs regular aerobic exercise, and people with type 2 diabetes are no exception. Your doctor is fine before starting an exercise program. Choose activities that you like, like walking, swimming, and biking, so that you can make them part of your daily routine.

Try to get at least 30 to 60 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise (or 15 to 30 minutes of vigorous exercise) most days of the week. A combination of exercises (aerobic exercises like walking or dancing most days, combined with resistance training, like weight lifting or yoga twice a week) can provide more benefits than just one type of exercise.

Remember that physical activity lowers blood sugar. Check your blood sugar level before taking any action. If you are taking diabetes medications to lower your blood sugar, you should eat breakfast before exercising to prevent low blood sugar. It is also important to reduce the amount of time you spend on inactive activities, such as watching television. Try turning a little every 30 minutes.

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