About Eye Problems In Children | Ophthalmology

Eye Problems in Children

Eye problems in children

There are many types of eye problems and diseases that can affect a child’s vision. If an eye condition is suspected or if the child fails a vision test, he should be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist for further evaluation and diagnosis. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent lifelong vision defects.

There are some types of eye problems in children:

1. Astigmatism

Astigmatism, a common eye problem in children is a refractive disorder that affects the shape of the cornea or lens. For near and far objects, vision can be blurred because the affected eye does not focus. Astigmatism coexists with both myopia and hyperopia and should be corrected as soon as it is diagnosed.

Diagnosing astigmatism in children is difficult because children with astigmatism sometimes do not recognize the ambiguity they need to see as a notification condition. Comprehensive eye exams are needed to make a proper diagnosis and rule out other eye problems.

Treatment for astigmatism

The goal of astigmatism treatment is to improve visual acuity and eye comfort. Treatments are corrective lenses or refractive surgery.

Eyeglasses: Glasses are made with lenses that help replace the asymmetrical shape of your eye. Lenses allow light to tilt your eye correctly. Glasses can also correct other refractive errors such as myopia or hyperopia.

Contact lenses: Some people have better vision with contact lenses instead of glasses. Contact lenses can provide clear vision and panoramic vision. However, since contact lenses are worn directly on the eyes, regular cleaning and care are required to maintain eye health. Regular soft lenses may not be effective in improving astigmatism.

Special toric soft contact lenses can be adjusted for a wide variety of astigmatism. Because rigid gas permeable contact lenses maintain their regular shape while on the cornea, they can replace the irregular shape of the cornea and improve vision for people with astigmatism.

Orthokeratology: Orthokeratology (ortho-K) involves fitting a series of rigid contact lenses to redesign the cornea. The patient uses contact lenses for a short time, such as at night, and then separates them.

People with moderate astigmatism may temporarily have clear vision without glasses for their daily activities. Orthokeratology does not permanently improve vision. If patients stop wearing retinal lenses, their vision can return to its original state.

Laser and other refractive surgeries: Performed with LASIK laser technology (photorefractive keratectomy) or manual incisions (radial keratotomy), which rescue the cornea by removing small pieces of tissue from the cornea.

2. Cataract

Cataracts are one of the common eye problems in children caused by cloudy spots that develop on the lens of the eye. Children experience cataracts as blurred vision, which affects their development and leads to permanent vision loss. The lens is inside the eye, back the iris. Pediatric cataracts can occur in one or both eyes.

Treatment for cataract

Treatment depends on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It also depends on the hardness of the situation. Treatment will be determined by your child’s healthcare provider based on your child’s cataracts.

In some cases, your child may require glasses or contact lenses. This will help your child look better. Most children older than 1 year will need surgery to remove the cataract and a new lens will be inserted.

3. Ptosis

Ptosis, one of the common eye problems in children is a narrowing of the upper eyelid. The eyelid is only slightly lowered or it may completely cover the pupil or eye. Ptosis affects one or both eyelids. In some cases, ptosis can limit and prevent normal vision. Sometimes there is congenital ptosis; In other cases, it occurs later in life due to injury or illness.

Treatment for ptosis

Eyelid lift surgery repairs the upper eyelids.

  • If vision is not affected, surgery can wait for 3 to 4 years for the child to grow a little.
  • In severe cases, immediate surgery is needed to prevent “lazy eye” (amblyopia).

The provider also treats any eye problems caused by ptosis. Your children may need:

  • Wear an eye patch to strengthen vision in the weak eye.
  • Wear special glasses to correct the irregular curve of the cornea that causes blurred vision (astigmatism).

Children with mild ptosis should have regular eye exams to prevent the development of amblyopia.

Surgery works well to improve the appearance and function of the eye. Some children require more than one surgery.

4. Hyperopia

Farsightedness, one of the common eye problems in children appears to be a refractive error, so the image is centered behind the retina, and vision is blurred. The cause may be in the eyeball or the optical power of the cornea and lens may be less than necessary. There is also a specific genealogical component.

Treatment for hyperopia

Hyperopia can be treated with corrective contact lenses or protective glasses. Alternatively, eye surgery can be very effective for the right candidates.

  • Conventional correction: Glasses or contact lenses in the form of positive lenses.
  • Surgical correction: The two surgical procedures available are laser eye surgery and clear lens removal. The latter is similar to cataract surgery but involves the removal of a clear lens (without cataracts).

If your hyperopia treatment is a surgical correction, it is important to speak with your eye surgeon about your choice. Your age, the severity of your hyperopia, the thickness of your corneas, and whether you have other eye conditions are many factors to consider.

5. Glaucoma

Glaucoma, one of the common eye problems in children is a disease that affects the optic nerves of the eye. This usually happens when fluid forms in front of your eye. That excess fluid increases the pressure in the eye and damages the optic nerve.

Symptoms start very slowly, you may not notice them. The only way to know if you have glaucoma is a comprehensive dilated eye exam.

Treatment for glaucoma

Doctors use a variety of glaucoma treatments, including medications (usually eye drops), laser treatment, and surgery.

  • Low pressure by reducing the amount of fluid produced in the eye, in the form of medications, eye drops, or tablets, and increasing drainage. One or more drugs can be used simultaneously.
  • Laser therapy to reduce pressure in the eye is done on a patient basis. A method called laser trabeculoplasty increases fluid drainage in patients with open-angle glaucoma. people with angle-closure glaucoma must be treated with a procedure commonly called laser iridotomy, which creates a small opening (part of the color of the eyes) in the iris that allows the drainage angle to open.
  • Surgery may be necessary to create a second drainage path in the eye to support the natural ones. Glaucoma surgery is usually performed on a patient-by-patient basis under local anesthesia and can allow the patient to reduce or eliminate glaucoma medication.

For more advanced cases, an artificial glaucoma drainage implant can help reduce stress. The implant helps drain excess fluid that builds up in the body.

6. Strabismus

Strabismus, one of the common eye problems in children also known as hypertrophy and crossed eyes, is a misalignment of the eyes, causing one eye to point toward the nose (esotropia) or outward (exotropia), while the other eye is centered.

Misalignment occurs once in newborns, especially if they are tired, they should get over it by the age of three months. In children, uncorrected strabismus can lead to amblyopia, in which case the brain begins to ignore the weak and misaligned signals sent by the eyes, which can lead to vision problems.

Treatment for strabismus

A complete vision evaluation is important to accurately diagnose strabismus (and/or amblyopia). Some types of strabismus are visually recognizable, but the test should include a thorough assessment of the visual system, including a binocular vision assessment to see how the eyes focus and move. Assessing visual acuity alone is not enough. You can expect your ophthalmologists to take a complete history.

It is common to test near and far acuity when evaluating the general health and structure of the eye. The doctor will make a cover to specifically test and diagnose strabismus. Test (also known as the coverage test), as well as the Hirschberg test (also known as Hirschberg corneal reflex test).

7. Amblyopia

Amblyopia, one of the common eye problems in children is when the vision in one or both eyes does not develop properly in childhood. This is sometimes called laziness. Amblyopia is a common problem in infants and young children.

A child’s vision develops during the first years of life. It is necessary to diagnose and treat amblyopia as soon as practicable. Otherwise, a child with amblyopia will not develop a normal, healthy vision.

Treatment for amblyopia

The earlier amblyopia is detected and treated, the better the outcome for the child. Treatment depends on the type of amblyopia the child has and how severe it is.

Glasses / Contact lenses: Corrective glasses or contact lenses are indicated if you have amblyopia because you are nearsighted or farsighted, or astigmatism in one eye.

Eye patch: Wearing a patch over your dominant eye can help strengthen your weak eye. Your doctor may recommend that you wear a patch for 1 to 2 hours a day, depending on the severity of your amblyopia. The patch helps develop the area of the brain that controls vision.

Eye drops: You can use eye drops once or twice a day to cloud your vision in your good eye. Like an eye patch, it encourages your weaker eye to wear more. It is an alternative to the patch.

Surgery: If you cross your eyes or your eyes point in opposite directions, your eye muscles may need surgery.

8. Pink eye

Pinkeye, one of the common eye problems in children is the common name for conjunctivitis, which causes inflammation and redness of the lining of the eye. The pinkeye can be caused by viruses, bacterial infections, allergies, or chemical factors. Sometimes it is the result of a chronic illness. Most commonly, the viral or bacterial infection causes pinkeye.

Treatment for pink eye

Treatment may include antibiotic eye drops or ointments and depending on the type of pinkeye.

Purulent pinkeye with a pink or red eyeball, white or yellow discharge, red or sticky eyelids, and eye discomfort usually caused by bacteria. It can be treated with antibiotics (eye drops or ointments) to prevent the disease from spreading to other people.

Non-purulent pinkeye, where the eyeball is pink or red, but the discharge is clear or watery, with only slight or uncomfortable. It usually causes a virus or other irritation (such as an allergy or exposure to a chemical such as chlorine in a swimming pool). The antibiotic drop does not work for this type of pinkeye.

9. Uveitis

Uveitis, one of the common eye problems in children is an inflammation of the uvea (or uveal membrane), the three middle layers that make up the eye. It can be contagious or contagious. It is a treatable condition; However, without proper treatment, it can lead to other problems such as glaucoma, cataracts, optic nerve damage, retinal detachment, and severe vision loss.

Treatment for uveitis

Steroids are the main treatment for uveitis. This will help reduce the inflammation inside your eye.

Different types of steroid medications are recommended depending on the type of uveitis. For example:

  • Eyedrops are often used for uveitis that hits the front of the eye.
  • Injections, tablets, and capsules are usually used to treat uveitis that affects the middle and back of the eye.

Additional treatment may also be necessary. They can be eye drops to reduce pain or, in some cases, surgery.

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