Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes In Children | Endocrinology

Type 1 diabetes in children

What is type 1 diabetes in children?

Type 1 diabetes in children needs insulin to survive, so the missing insulin must be replaced with shots or an insulin pump. Type 1 diabetes in children is also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes.

Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is high in children, especially at an early stage. Suddenly, you and your baby, depending on your age, must learn to give injections, count carbohydrates, and control blood sugar.

There is no cure for type 1 diabetes in children, but it can be controlled. Improved blood sugar control and insulin delivery have improved blood sugar control and quality of life for children with type 1 diabetes.

Both types of diabetes have type 1 and type 2 blood sugar levels that are higher than normal, but they vary.

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas loses its ability to produce insulin because the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin. No one knows why this happens, but scientists believe it may be related to genes. But having genes for diabetes is usually not enough. To get type 1 diabetes in children, a person has to be exposed to something else, like a virus.

In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas still produces insulin, but the body generally does not respond to it. Glucose can enter cells and supply energy (a problem called insulin resistance). The blood sugar level rises, so the pancreas struggles to produce more insulin. Over time, this pressure causes the pancreas not to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels normal.

Causes of type 1 diabetes in children

Mistakenly destroying the insulin-producing cells (islands) in the pancreas. Genetic and environmental factors play a role in this process.

After the islet cells of the pancreas are destroyed, your baby will have less or no insulin production. Insulin plays a key role in moving sugar (glucose) from the bloodstream to the cells of the body. Sugar enters the bloodstream when food is digested.

Without enough insulin, your baby will have high blood sugar, which can lead to life-threatening complications if left untreated.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children

One of the first signs of diabetes in children is increased thirst and urination. When the blood sugar level is high, it triggers a reaction in the body like fluid in the tissues. It makes your son or daughter constantly thirsty, resulting in the need for more bathroom breaks during the day. Here are some other warning signs to know about.

Fatigue: If your child is constantly tired, it can be a sign that her body is having trouble converting sugar into energy in the bloodstream.

  • Changes in vision
  • High blood sugar levels can cause blurred vision or other vision problems
  • Fruity-smelling breath
  • If your child’s breath smells fruity, it could be the result of high blood sugar
  • Excessive appetite and unexplained weight loss

When your child’s muscles and organs don’t get enough energy, it can cause intense hunger. And sudden weight loss, especially if you eat too much, should not be ignored.

Abnormal behavior

If your child is feeling more emotional or fickle than usual, and it is accompanied by the above symptoms, it may be cause for concern.

Other symptoms of diabetes in children

Be careful if your child is tired, wheezing, or experiences nausea and vomiting. If left untreated, it can lead to type 1 diabetes. If you are concerned that your son or daughter is showing signs of childhood diabetes, it is important to make an appointment with your doctor as soon as possible.

Risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children

There are several risk factors for developing type 1 diabetes in children, and you can develop diabetes if you have a genetic marker. That genetic marker is on chromosome 6 and is an HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex. Many HLA complexes have been linked to type 1 diabetes, and if you have one or more, you can develop type 1 diabetes. 10% of people with the “correct” complex (S) actually develop type 1.

Other risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children:

  • Viral infections: Researchers have found that some viruses cause type 1 diabetes to develop by turning the body’s immune system against the body, rather than helping fight infection and disease. Viruses believed to induce type 1: German measles, coxsackie, and almond.
  • Race / Ethnicity: The rate of type 1 diabetes in children is higher in some species. In the United States, Caucasians are more likely to have type 1 than African Americans and Hispanic Americans. The Chinese people have a lower risk of developing type 1 diabetes than the people of South America.
  • Geography: People living in northern climates appear to be at increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. It has been suggested that people living in northern countries are more likely to be indoors (especially in winter) and this means that they are closer to each other, which can lead to more viral infections.
  • In contrast, people living in southern climates, such as South America, are less likely to develop type 1. Similarly, researchers have found that more cases are diagnosed during winter in northern countries; The rate of diagnosis decreases in summer.
  • Family history: Because a family member has (or has had) type 1 diabetes, you are at an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
  • If both parents have type 1 (their parents are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes than just one parent), the researchers found that if the father has type 1, the mother or siblings have a slightly higher risk of developing type diabetes.
  • Early Diet: Researchers have suggested that babies who are breastfed at a very young age have a slightly higher rate of type 1 diabetes.

Other autoimmune conditions: As described above, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that causes the body’s immune system to turn against itself. Other autoimmune conditions share a similar HLA complex, so having one of those disorders makes you more likely to develop the type

Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children

  • Random blood sugar test. This is the basic screening test for type 1 diabetes. The blood sample is drawn at random. Your blood sugar level is 200 milligrams (mg / dL) per deciliter, or 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol / L) or more.
  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test.  A1C levels of 6.5 percent or higher on two different tests indicate diabetes.
  • Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after your child has fasted overnight. Fasting indicates a blood sugar level of 126 mg / dL (7.0 mmol / L) or higher for type 1 diabetes.

Additional exams

If a blood sugar test indicates diabetes, your doctor may recommend additional tests to differentiate between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes because treatment strategies vary by type.

These additional tests are:

  • Blood tests for common antibodies in type 1 diabetes in children
  • Urine or blood tests to check for ketones, which indicate type 1 rather than type 2 diabetes

Treatment for type 1 diabetes in children

Glucose is the main source of energy for the body’s cells and carries them through the bloodstream. A hormone called insulin allows glucose to enter cells. In type 1 diabetes, the body no longer produces insulin, so glucose does not enter the body’s cells. This causes the blood glucose level to rise.

  • The goals of treatment for children with diabetes are to manage the condition by:
  • It helps them to have normal physical and mental growth and development.
  • Prevents short and long term health problems
  • To do this, parents and children should try to keep their blood sugar levels within their target range as much as possible.

In general, type 1 diabetes in children should:

  • Take insulin as prescribed
  • Monitor blood sugar levels as directed
  • Get regular physical activity

Following a treatment plan can help children stay healthy, but treating diabetes is not the same as curing it. Currently, there is no cure for diabetes, so children with type 1 diabetes need lifelong treatment. But with proper care, they should look healthy and live long, productive lives like other children.

Taking insulin as prescribed

Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes should receive insulin as part of their treatment plan. Insulin is the only drug that can keep your blood sugar levels in a healthy range.

Taking insulin as prescribed can help them use blood glucose for energy. When glucose enters cells and is used correctly, its level in the blood is generally within the healthy range.

Insulin is broken down and destroyed if digestive acids and juices from the stomach and intestines are ingested, so it should not be taken in pill form. The only way to get insulin into the body now is by injecting it with a needle or an insulin pump. If they don’t use an insulin pump, most children will need two or more injections a day to keep their blood sugar levels under control. In general, both types of insulin are necessary to maintain blood sugar requirements after and between meals.

There is no one-size-fits-all insulin program – the types of insulin a child needs and the number of daily injections depend on the diabetes management plan. Insulin doses must be adjusted to maintain the rise in blood sugar that occurs with meals and to provide the body with the amount of insulin it needs during meals and at night.

Eating at regular times usually makes it easier. While eating on a schedule works well for young children, sticking to a routine can be challenging for older children and teens whose school, sleep, and social schedules vary frequently. The Diabetes Healthcare team can help your child with any problems through meals and insulin injections.

Receiving insulin injections today is almost painless, thanks to the tiny needles. Insulin pumps (they deliver insulin through a tube placed under the skin) reduce the number of injections needed.

Insulin is usually injected into the layer of fat under the skin of the abdomen, hips/buttocks, arms, or thighs. The healthcare team will teach you when and how to give insulin based on your child’s weight, age, activity patterns, and the best injection sites.

Following a healthy diet and eating plan

Eating a balanced diet and following an eating plan are important components in treating type 1 diabetes. Children with diabetes benefit from a healthy diet similar to that of those without diabetes: it contains a variety of healthy foods that help the body to grow and function properly.

Children with diabetes need to balance the type and timing of their meals with the amount of insulin they take and their level of activity. This is because eating certain foods raises blood sugar levels more than others, while insulin and exercise lower blood sugar levels.

The amount of blood sugar that rises after eating depends on the type of nutrients in the food. The three main types of nutrients found in food are carbohydrates (carbohydrates), proteins, and fats, which provide energy in the form of calories. Foods rich in carbohydrates can cause high blood sugar levels.


The largest and most prestigious preventive trial to date is the Type 1 Diabetes Prevention Trial (DPT-1), launched in 1994. This study was designed to determine whether it is possible to prevent or delay the onset of type 1 diabetes in people. They are at risk of developing the disease. The theory behind the trial is that by receiving low doses of insulin over a long period of time, the immune system can learn to be ‘tolerant’ of insulin and thus leave the insulin-producing beta islet cells alone.

After initial screening, patients were assigned to one of two test weapons (based on family history and genetic profiles) based on their level of risk:

Insulin Injection assay (Completed). Individuals diagnosed with an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes within five years were randomly assigned to either the treatment group or the control (untreated) group. The treatment group received a five-day course of intravenous insulin infusion, twice daily with long-acting low-dose insulin, once a year. Unfortunately, this branch of the trial has proven to be a drop, with 60% of patients in the treated and untreated groups on the verge of developing type 1 diabetes.

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