General Topics

Diagnosis of Conjunctivitis in Children | Ophthalmology

What is conjunctivitis in children?

Conjunctivitis in children is inflammation of the lining of the eye over the eyeball and inside the eyelids. Infection with bacteria or viruses can cause conjunctivitis. Infection occurs easily, especially if the eye is already irritated. Sometimes children can develop conjunctivitis as part of a cold.

Viral conjunctivitis is very contagious, but bacterial conjunctivitis is not. conjunctivitis in children’s condition is often classified as neonatal conjunctivitis or infantile conjunctivitis. Each group has different causes and treatments.

Types of conjunctivitis in children

  1. Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Bacterial conjunctivitis is another common type of pink eye in which viruses are spread through the air by sneezing and coughing. Bacterial conjunctivitis is a common viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, such as measles, the flu, or the common cold.
  2. Viral Conjunctivitis: Viral conjunctivitis is a common infection in the Western population and is often associated with other infections throughout the body. Due to their correlation with respiratory anatomy, viral upper respiratory infections are a common cause of secondary viral conjunctivitis.
  3. Gonococcal and chlamydial conjunctivitis: It is caused by a bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhea. The newborn passes this type of conjunctivitis through the birth canal of the infected mother. This type of conjunctivitis can be prevented with the use of eye drops at birth in newborns. Newborn eyes are often very red, with thick discharge and swelling of the eyelids. This type usually begins 2 to 4 days after birth. Treatment of gonococcal conjunctivitis usually involves antibiotics through an intravenous (IV) catheter.
  4. Allergic Conjunctivitis: Caused by an allergy, not an infection, not an infection. Antibiotic eye drops may not help, but allergy eye drops can. It usually affects both eyes and the main symptoms in children are watery eyes and itching.
  5. Non-infectious conjunctivitis: Conjunctivitis, which is caused by irritation of the eyes, causes symptoms of conjunctivitis that can occur from a variety of sources, including smoke, diesel exhaust, perfumes, and certain chemicals. Some types of conjunctivitis stem from sensitivity to certain substances ingested, including herbs such as conjunctiva and turmeric.

Causes of conjunctivitis in children

Conjunctivitis in children may be caused by:

  • Bacteria (several different varieties may cause conjunctivitis)
  • Viruses (such as adenovirus or herpes virus)
  • Allergies
  • Exposure to chemicals (rarely, the drops given to newborns for preventing conjunctivitis may have the reverse effect and may irritate the eye)

The causes and treatments of conjunctivitis in children among newborns may differ.

Symptoms of conjunctivitis in children

The following are common symptoms of the condition. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. There may be symptoms:

  • Gritty feeling in one or both eyes
  • Itchy, irritated eyes
  • Clear, thin drainage and increased tearing
  • Sneezing and runny nose
  • Stringy discharge from the eyes
  • Thick, green drainage from the eyes
  • Ear infection
  • A lesion with a crusty appearance
  • Eyes that are matted together in the morning
  • Swelling of the eyelids
  • Pink or red discolouration of the whites of one or both eyes
  • Discomfort when the child looks at a light
  • Burning in the eyes

The symptoms of conjunctivitis in children sometimes resemble other medical problems. Always see your child’s healthcare provider for an examination.

Diagnosis of conjunctivitis in children

Conjunctivitis in children can be diagnosed by its symptoms, and the exact cause can be determined by the paediatrician. Since there are other conditions, such as hay fever, that have similar symptoms, it is important to see a paediatrician as soon as possible.

Common symptoms of infectious conjunctivitis are red, watery, and sticky eyes. However, infectious conjunctivitis is sometimes confused with other types of conjunctivitis, which are treated differently.

Conjunctivitis in children treatment

Treatment depends on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It also depends on the cause of the situation, for example:

  • Bacterial infections: It is administered with antibiotic eye drops.
  • Viral infection: Viral conjunctivitis generally does not require treatment. In some cases, antibiotic eye drops can be used to prevent secondary infection.
  • Allergic reaction: Treatment of conjunctivitis caused by allergies generally involves treating the allergies. Your child’s primary care provider may prescribe oral medications or eye drops to help with allergies.
  • Herpes infection: If your child has an eye infection caused by a herpes infection, her paediatrician may refer her to an eye care specialist. You can give your child both oral medications and eye drops.

If the disease is affected by an infection, it is important to know that the disease can spread from one eye to another by touching the affected eye or the fluid that comes out of the eye. The infection can also spread to other people. Fluid from the eye comes out 24 to 48 hours after starting treatment.

To help prevent the spread of infection, you should wash your hands frequently while caring for your baby. Make sure your child does not touch her eyes. Your child should wash her hands often.

Prevention of conjunctivitis in children

Conjunctivitis spreads throughout the nursery or preschool. In some cases, the infection is passed on to the friends of young children, who pass it on to the child.

Common prevention strategies reduce the spread of infections and reduce the risk of recurrent conjunctivitis:

  • Encourage young children to avoid touching or rubbing their eyes.
  • Keep school children away from school with a fever or thick eye discharge.
  • Don’t share eye care products like contact lenses, glasses, or eye makeup. Encourage children not to share these products.
  • Practice washing your hands frequently.
  • Encourage children not to touch their friends’ faces.

Complications of conjunctivitis in children

Pink eye is a depressing condition, especially allergic conjunctivitis, but in most cases, it does not pose a serious health threat.

Complications of conjunctivitis are very rare, but when they do occur they are serious and include:

  • A severe case of allergic conjunctivitis can lead to scarring of the eye
  • In cases of infectious conjunctivitis, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and trigger more serious secondary infections, such as meningitis.

When to contact the doctor

  • Worsening drainage or discharge from the eye
  • Fever in addition to pink eye
  • Blistering or rash on the eyelids
  • Severe light sensation or pain
  • Vision problems
  • Any injury to the eye
  • Symptoms that do not change within a week.

Symptoms and Causes of Swollen Eyelid | Ophthalmology

What is a swollen eyelid?

A swollen eyelid is more than just a cosmetic irritation. This can be scary, especially if the swelling is severe and can interfere with a person’s ability to see. Inflammation of the eyelids from infection arises from infection of the eyelid, which is triggered by an infected wound, chalazion, or conjunctivitis.

Inflammation of the eyelids can also be caused by an infection that spreads to the eye area from elsewhere, such as the sinus or sinus cavities. Infection of the eye and surrounding tissues is very serious and requires antibiotics to kill bacteria and protect the eye. Eyelid swelling and general swelling (edema) can be a sign of a serious condition, you should speak to your healthcare provider about your symptoms.

Fever, vision problems (such as blurred vision), abnormal eye movements (or loss of mobility), bulging of the eye (swelling), or signs of anaphylactic shock (swollen tongue and throat, skin rash, and trouble breathing). Most causes of puffy eyelids are harmless, but minor problems can be very serious. So if a person has swollen eyelids, it is recommended that an optometrist or ophthalmologist take care of them.

Symptoms of a swollen eyelid

Inflammation of the eyelids is a symptom of an underlying cause, such as an allergy or infection. Puffy eyes usually have one or more of the following:

  • A swollen eyelid can be a symptom of an allergy or a sign of a serious eye infection
  • Eye irritation, itching, or scratching
  • Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
  • Excessive tear production, resulting in watery eyes
  • Impaired vision (depending on the degree of inflammation)
  • Eyelid redness
  • Red-eye inflammation and conjunctivitis
  • Eye discharge
  • Dry or scaly eyelids
  • Pain, especially when the swollen eyelids are caused by an infection

Here are some common symptoms of puffy eyelids:

  • Itchy eyes: Your swollen eyelids can be the result of allergies. Most often, itchy eyes are caused by certain types of allergies. An irritating substance, such as pollen, dust, and animal dander, releases compounds called histamines into the tissues around the eyes, causing itching, redness, and swelling.
  • Sensitivity to light: Your eyelids may swell in response to photophobia or sensitivity to light, which is intolerance of light. Sources such as sunlight, fluorescent light, and incandescent light can cause discomfort, requiring you to disperse or close your eyes. The headache can also be accompanied by sensitivity to light.
  • Tears in the eyes: The swelling of the eyes causes swelling of the eyelids. The chronic irritation of dry eye syndrome is caused by the excessive production of tear water, which is produced by the glands behind the upper eyelid (lacrimal glands).
  • Red eyes: Your swollen eyelids may be due to redness in your eyes. Red or bloody eyes are very common and have many causes. Red eyes are often a symptom of other eye conditions, ranging from benign to severe.
  • Eye discharge: Eye discharge or “sleepy” eyes can cause eyelid inflammation. Eye discharge is a combination of mucus, oil, skin cells, and other debris that collects in the corner of your eye when you sleep. It can be wet and sticky or dry and crusty depending on how much liquid in the discharge has evaporated.
  • Dry eyes: Dry eye syndrome can cause many problems, including swollen eyelids. Dry eye syndrome is caused by a lack of adequate lubrication and moisture on the surface of the eye. The consequences of dry eyes range from subtle but persistent eye irritation to significant inflammation and scarring of the front surface of the eye.
  • Eye pain: Eye pain is often accompanied by blurred vision, redness (bloodshot eyes), sensitivity to light, and swelling of the eyelids. Eye pain is a general phrase to describe discomfort around, behind, behind, or around the eye.

Causes of a swollen eyelid

Swollen eyelids are common. Causes range from fluid retention to severe infection. In most cases, the swelling goes away within 24 hours. You can reduce the inflammation with compresses, but how you treat swollen eyelids also depends on the cause.

Puffy eyelids are often a symptom of another medical condition, including:

  • Allergies
  • Inflamed eyelids (blepharitis)
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Herpes
  • Ovarian gland (chalazion) on your eyelid
  • Eyelid infection)
  • Infection around the eye socket (orbital cellulitis)
  • Thyroid conditions like Graves’ disease

Some medical conditions can also cause symptoms of eye or eyelid inflammation. Although rare, it includes Graves disease and eye cancer. To prevent complications, see an eye doctor if the swelling lasts longer than 24 to 48 hours.

Treatment for swollen eyelids

If your eyelids are sore or soft to the touch, the cause is an infection, cyst, or blemish. It is important to identify the cause of your swollen eyelid, as treatment options depend on the cause.

Cyst: If your upper or lower eyelid is inflamed, it may be due to a cyst or chalazion. A chalazion usually swells in the middle of the eyelid. These cysts can take a few weeks to disappear, and some can turn into a hard lump.

For relief, place a warm damp cloth over your eye. The heat helps secrete oil and clog. You can do this four to six times a day. If the cyst is delayed, see your doctor. They will help you drain it.

Stye: A sting is caused by a small infection at the base of the eyelid near the hair. It can be internal or external, but it often appears as a well-defined red bump. Once the pus from the stay is released, your eye usually heals.

You can use a warm compress to soothe and promote healing. It usually takes a few weeks to go away. Avoid wearing makeup only when you have a style, as it can cause reinfection.

Pink eye: Conjunctivitis is caused by a bacterial, viral, or allergic infection that causes inflammation on the surface of the eye. It can start in one eye and spread to both. Pus or a sticky coating often appears on the hair and in the corners of the eyes.

You can clean sticky and crusty eyelids with warm water and cotton. The eye improves without treatment. At this point, avoid touching your eyes and keep the pillowcases clean. You may also want to stop wearing cosmetics and contact lenses.

What to do if it is an infection

An infection on the skin is called cellulitis. The skin around the eyes may become red and painful. You will need antibiotics to relieve this inflammation. Cellulite usually affects the legs, but it can occur anywhere.

Symptoms that indicate the need for emergency treatment:

  • Maximum temperature
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Shake
  • Confusion
  • Vision changes or double vision
  • The eye could not move

For mild eyelid swelling, here are some remedies you can try at home:

  • Wash and rinse the skin around your eyelids (baby shampoo mixed with water works well, or you can purchase eyelid ‘scrub’ pads); gently pat dry.
  • Use sterile saline or artificial tears to rinse your eyes.
  • Apply cool compresses, including cold (caffeinated) teabags. Caffeine constricts the tiny blood vessels in your eyes and eyelids, which helps reduce fluid leakage and puffy eyelids (edema).
  • Rest and sleep with your head elevated. This will help drain fluids away from your eyelids and surrounding tissues.
  • Do not wear contact lenses until your eyelid swelling goes away. It’s possible to have an allergy to the contact lens material, so consider that possibility if swelling resolves when you are not wearing the lenses.
  • For styles and chalazia, use hot compresses for 5 to 10 minutes a few times a day, along with medicine your doctor prescribes for infection or inflammation.

Prevention of the Swollen eyelid

Prevention of eyelid inflammation depends on the cause.

Allergies: Common Cause of Swollen Eyelids-Allergies-Allergy Medications Taking the medication on a daily basis can help prevent symptoms. Do not rub your eyes; Inflammation increases. If eyelid swelling occurs frequently, check with an allergy test to determine which allergy you have. Once you identify the exact allergens, you can avoid them. Use hypoallergenic cosmetic and facial products. If you occasionally use eye drops for redness and your eyes and lids become irritated, use preservative-free eye drops as the preservative can irritate the eyes. You can buy single-use artificial tears. Also, some people are allergic to contact lens material, especially silicone lenses. Talk to your optometrist if you think your contacts are guilty.

Causes of Infections: Cleaning your eyelids twice a day with a mild cleanser (try mixing baby shampoo with water) can help prevent infection and inflammation of the eyelids. If you wear eye makeup, do not share it with anyone. Treating eyelid conditions with home remedies and any medications prescribed by your doctor can help reduce eyelid inflammation.

Fluid retention: For causes related to edema, you can prevent eyelid swelling by drinking plenty of water and following a low-salt diet as prescribed by your doctor. Drinking alcohol increases edema, so cutting back can help prevent swelling. Inflammation can be controlled by treating an underlying condition, such as kidney disease. Sleeping with your head elevated removes excess fluid from the delicate eye tissue, reducing the appearance of puffy eyes upon waking.


Allergic Conjunctivitis | Preventive Measures | Ophthalmology

Overview of allergic conjunctivitis

Allergic conjunctivitis usually occurs when a person’s eyes come into contact with an allergen, causing the body’s immune system to overreact.

When your eyes are exposed to substances like pollen or mould spores, they can become red, itchy, and watery. These are the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. Allergic conjunctivitis is an eye inflammation caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen or mould spores.

The inside of the eyelids and the lining of the eyebrows have a layer called the conjunctiva. Conjunctivitis can be caused by allergens, especially during hay fever season. Allergic conjunctivitis is very common. It is your body’s reaction to substances that are considered harmful.

The eye becomes painful and inflamed. The overly sensitive immune system releases histamine and other active substances through mast cells. Blood vessels rupture or dilate and this irritates the nerve endings. The result was a bigger tear.

Symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis

Most people with allergic conjunctivitis have problems with both eyes. Symptoms appear as soon as the eyes become allergic. In other cases, for example, if the eye drops cause a reaction, symptoms will appear after 2 to 4 days.

Symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis:

  • Red or pink eyes: Irritation of the eyes due to dilation of capillaries or small blood vessels of the conjunctiva.
  • Pain: It affects one or both eyes. If a person has read and painful eyes, is sensitive to light, and their vision is affected, they should see a doctor immediately.
  • Itching: They may itch because the eyes are irritated. The itching is aggravated by massage.
  • Swollen eyelids: Eyelids can swell when the eyelids become inflamed or when a person rubs them too hard.
  • Pain: The entire area of ​​inflammation may feel sore and tender. It feels like some people hurt.

People with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis experience symptoms at certain times of the year, usually from early spring to late summer and sometimes late fall.

Types of allergic conjunctivitis

There are different types of allergic conjunctivitis.

Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

Pollen is a common cause of allergic conjunctivitis. Pollen is an allergen that causes conjunctivitis in countries with cold winters. If conjunctivitis is caused by pollen, there may be sneezing, itching, a blocked or runny nose, and other symptoms of itchy and sore eyes. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is also known as hay fever.

This usually happens during the spring and summer months. During this time, plants and especially grass, trees, and flowers are in pollen. Some people have symptoms in early fall.

Contact the conjunctiva

Also known as contact keratoconjunctivitis, symptoms are usually caused by cosmetics, eye drops, or other chemicals that irritate the conjunctiva in those who present. Contact with these substances can cause an allergic reaction. Some are sensitive to specific substances. Symptoms generally develop 2 to 4 days after contact with the substance.

Giant papillary conjunctivitis

Often this is due to contact lens wear. In some people, contact lenses can cause discomfort. It gradually becomes worse and uncomfortable, causing the eyes to turn red. Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC) can also occur when a person wears hard contact lenses after eye surgery. Poor hygiene when handling contact lenses, solutions, and cases can contribute to eye infections.

Permanent conjunctivitis

Permanent conjunctivitis lasts all year. It mainly comes from allergies to house dust mites. They are micro-insect-like creatures that live primarily in bedding, upholstered furniture, and carpets. Dust mites feed on sprayed skin cells and prefer hot, humid climates.

Dust mite allergy is the immune system’s response to a specific protein of dust mites. It can cause a variety of problems such as asthma, conjunctivitis, runny or blocked nose, sneezing, and constriction of the airways. Other causes include small amounts of animal dander, animal fur, or bird hair or feathers. These can cause an allergic reaction in some people.

What causes allergic conjunctivitis?

You experience allergic conjunctivitis when your body tries to protect itself from the perceived threat. Responds to things that stimulate the release of histamine. Your body produces this powerful chemical to fight foreign invaders. Some of the substances that cause this reaction are:

  • Household dust
  • Tree and grass pollen
  • Mould spores
  • Animal dander
  • Chemical fragrances such as household detergents or perfumes.

Some people may also experience allergic conjunctivitis in response to certain medications or substances that get into the eyes, such as a contact lens solution or eye drops.

Who is at risk for allergic conjunctivitis?

People with allergies are more likely to have allergic conjunctivitis. According to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, allergies affect 30 per cent of adults and 40 per cent of children and are often inherited.

Allergies are more common in children and adolescents. If you have allergies and live in areas with high pollen levels, you are more likely to have allergic conjunctivitis.

Diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis

A doctor can diagnose allergic conjunctivitis by examining the patient and asking about signs and symptoms such as sneezing and a runny nose. They should also rule out other conditions with similar symptoms. Anyone with the following symptoms should see a doctor immediately, as they may have a more serious condition:

  • Sore eyes
  • Sensitivity to light or photophobia
  • Eyesight problems
  • Very red eyes

In addition to allergic conjunctivitis, the eyes can become red with the following conditions:

  • Infectious conjunctivitis: It is caused by bacteria or viruses. It is associated with the herpes virus and refers to a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
  • Acute glaucoma: Increased pressure in the eye. Symptoms appear more quickly. Untreated severe glaucoma causes irreversible vision loss.
  • Keratitis: The cornea is inflamed and occasionally ulcerated. Sometimes corneal scarring progresses, resulting in permanent loss of vision.
  • Erythema: It is an inflammation of the iris. If left untreated, the iris will stick to the lens and prevent a significant amount of fluid from draining from the pupil. The result can be irreversible eye damage.

The doctor will also check to see if any object or substance like the hair is irritating. If symptoms are severe or become severe, the doctor may refer the patient to an ophthalmologist or an ophthalmologist.

Anyone who develops papillary conjunctivitis after recent eye surgery can be referred to an ophthalmologist. The eye or eyes should be carefully examined to make sure the treatment is effective.

Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

Avoid triggers by making changes in your home and your daily routine.

  • Keep windows closed during periods of high pollen. Use air conditioning in your home and car.
  • Wear glasses or sunglasses when outdoors to keep pollen out of your eyes.
  • Use a dehumidifier to control “mite-proof” bedding covers and mould to limit exposure to dust mites.
  • Wash your hands after any pets.
  • Control some symptoms with over-the-counter medications, sold without a prescription.

Artificial tears

  • Decongestant eye drops (do not use eye drops for “red eyes” for more than a week, or they may make things worse)
  • Oral antihistamines (note that these can dry out your eyes and make your symptoms worse)

Consult an allergist for prescription medications, which may be more effective:

  • Eyedrops (decongestants, antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroids, NSAIDs)
  • Allergy shots (immunotherapy)
  • Stop oral antihistamines (note that they can dry out your eyes and make your symptoms worse)

Home care

Treating allergic conjunctivitis at home involves a combination of preventive strategies and activities to reduce your symptoms. To reduce your susceptibility to allergens:

  • Close windows when pollen counts are high
  • Keep your home dust-free
  • Use an indoor air purifier
  • Avoid exposure to harsh chemicals, dyes, and fragrances.

To reduce your symptoms, avoid rubbing your eyes. Cold compresses for the eyes reduce inflammation and itching.


In more problematic cases, home care may not be adequate. You should consult a doctor who will recommend the following options:

  • Oral or over-the-counter antihistamine to reduce or prevent histamine release
  • Anti-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory eye drops
  • Eye drops to narrow congested blood vessels.
  • Steroid drops for the eyes

Allergic conjunctivitis complications

Complications of permanent or seasonal allergic conjunctivitis are very rare. Allergic conjunctivitis affects a person’s quality of life but generally does not have a long-term effect on health. Sometimes problems can occur with keratoconjunctivitis and giant papillary conjunctivitis.

The cornea may be inflamed. This is called keratitis, and it causes ulcers to form on the cornea. This increases the risk of scarring and the possibility of permanent vision loss.

Keratitis symptoms:

  • Severe pain in the eye
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Blurry vision
  • A feeling that there is something in the eye
  • Water the eyes

If these symptoms appear, the person should consult a doctor.

Prevention of allergic conjunctivitis

The best way to prevent allergic rhinitis is to find out the cause and prevent the allergen.

  • Common allergens are pet hair and pollen.
  • If you have a pet allergy, try the following:
  • Keep pets out of the bedroom
  • Brush them regularly and wash them every 2 weeks.
  • Wash your bedding regularly.
  • If you visit a pet home, taking antihistamines an hour before can help reduce symptoms.

If pollen causes a reaction:

  • Stay indoors when pollen counts are high and keep doors and windows closed
  • Avoid areas with lots of grass, flowers, or trees
  • Wear Wraparound sunglasses to protect your eyes
  • Changing clothes after bathing and outdoors
  • Try to have someone else cut the grass for you
  • Late afternoon and early evening when pollen levels are high.

If house dust mites cause a reaction:

  • Avoid soft decorations like rugs and curtains.
  • Use a vacuum with a HEPA filter
  • Choose anti-allergy mattresses and bedding
  • Vacuum and remove dust often with a clean, damp cloth.

What You Need To Know About Conjunctivitis or Pink Eye | Ophthalmology

Overview of conjunctivitis or pink eye

Conjunctivitis, commonly known as “pink eye,” is an infection or swelling in the outer membrane of your eyeball.

Blood vessels in your conjunctiva, a thin membrane that lines part of your eye, become inflamed. This gives your eye the red or pink colour that’s commonly associated with conjunctivitis.

What are the types of conjunctivitis?

There are three distinct sorts of conjunctivitis, contingent upon the reason.

  • Chemical or irritant conjunctivitis: If something irritates the eye, it can become inflamed and painful. The irritant could be wrongly directed eyelashes in the eyes, or chlorine after swimming in a pool.
  • Allergic conjunctivitis: This occurs when an allergen, such as dust mites, pollen, or animal fur, comes into contact with the eye. Allergens cause the body’s immune system to overreact, causing irritation and inflammation.
  • Infective conjunctivitis: Micro-organisms or infections cause contamination, making the eyes red, pink, and watery. There could be a sticky coating on the eyelashes and mucus in the eye.

What are the symptoms of pinkeye?

It depends on the cause of the inflammation, but it may include:

  • Redness of the white of the eye or the inner eyelid
  • Swollen conjunctive
  • More tears than usual
  • Thick yellow secretions peel off over the eyelashes, especially after sleep. It can make your eyelids sticky when you wake up.
  • Green or white discharge from the eye.
  • Itchy eyes
  • Burning eyes
  • Blurred vision
  • More sensitive to light
  • Swollen lymph nodes (regularly because of a viral disease).

What causes pink eye?

The most common causes of pink eye are:

Viruses or bacteria

Bacterial conjunctivitis is most often caused by the same type of bacteria that cause strep throat and staph infections. Pink eye caused by a virus, on the other hand, is usually the result of one of the viruses that cause the common cold.

Whatever the cause, viral and bacterial pink eye is considered highly contagious. It can easily be transmitted from one person to another simply by hand contact.


Allergens, such as pollen, can cause pink eye in one or both of your eyes.

Allergens stimulate your body to create more histamines, which cause inflammation as a part of your body’s response to what it thinks is an infection. In turn, this causes allergic conjunctivitis. It is usually itchy.


You also need to be careful if a foreign substance or chemical gets in your eyes. Chemicals like chlorine, found in backyard swimming pools, can cause pink eye. Rinsing your eyes with water is a simple and effective way to prevent irritating chemicals from causing pink eye.

How is pink eye diagnosed?

It’s not hard for your healthcare provider to diagnose pink eye. They’ll be able to tell if you have pink eye simply by asking you a few questions and looking at your eyes.

For example, they might ask you if your eyes are itchy and whether you have watery or thick discharge. They might also ask if you’re experiencing symptoms of a common cold, hay fever, or asthma.

If necessary, they might take a tear or fluid sample from your conjunctiva and send it to a lab for further analysis.

Complications of pink eye

In both children and adults, pink eye can cause inflammation in the cornea that can affect vision. Prompt evaluation and treatment by your doctor for eye pain, a feeling that something is stuck in your eye, blurred vision or light sensitivity can reduce the risk of complications.

Treatment of pink eye

As you would expect, the treatment for pink eye will depend on the type of conjunctivitis you have:

  • Viral conjunctivitis treatment: In most cases, viral conjunctivitis continues its course over several days and no medical treatment is required. Applying an infection wet towel to the eyes a couple of times every day can ease the appearances of viral conjunctivitis.
  • Bacterial conjunctivitis treatment: Your eye doctor will prescribe antibiotic eye drops or ointments to treat this eye disease.
  • Allergic conjunctivitis treatment: Allergy medications often help prevent or shorten episodes.

It is often difficult to determine the type of conjunctivitis you have from symptoms alone (or if other eye conditions or health conditions are causing the symptoms). Conditions associated with conjunctivitis include dry eyes. Also, this can sometimes lead to very serious eye problems that may lead to permanent vision loss.

Risk factors

Risk factors for pink eye include:

  • Exposure to something for which you have an allergy (allergic conjunctivitis).
  • Exposure to someone infected with the viral or bacterial form of conjunctivitis.
  • Using contact lenses, especially extended-wear lenses.

How can someone prevent the spread of pinkeye?

Infectious forms of Pinkie are highly contagious and spread through direct contact with infected people. If someone has contagious rosacea, avoid touching the eye area and wash hands frequently, especially after applying medications to the eye area. Never share towels or napkins, and throw away the napkins after each use. Disinfecting surfaces such as countertops, sinks, and door handles can also help prevent the spread of pinky infection.