General Topics

Home Remedies for Watery Eyes | Ophthalmology

What are watery eyes?

Watery eyes can be very irritating and can cause indistinct vision, sore eyelids, and sticky eyes. But, most of the time, the condition can be resolved at home. There are many things you can do to keep your eyes from watering, in addition to eye drops and medicine.

Home remedies for watery eyes

  • Flush your eyes with clean water (evading tap water) when you suspect a foreign particle has caused the problem.
  • Use a clean, damp cloth, not your hands, to wipe your eyes or wipe away tears to avoid getting bacterial infections.
  • Avoid rubbing your eyes if you think you have foreign particles attached to them, as doing so can damage your eye.
  • Try rubbing coconut oil around your eyes to provide soothing eye relief.
  • Make a warm eye compress to soothe red and irritated eyes. In addition to reducing redness and irritation, warm compresses also help remove scabs from your eyes and remove toxins that may be blocking your tear ducts.
  • Using tea bags (chamomile, peppermint, and spearmint) can be an effective home remedy to treat watery eyes. Soak the tea bags in warm water for a few minutes, and once it has warmed up, you can place it on your eyes.
  • Make a soothing eyewash solution by mixing 1 teaspoon of baking soda in a cup of water. Rinse your eyes with the solution 2-3 times a day.
  • Wear protective sunglasses when outdoors, but be sure to clean them before wearing them.
  • Remember, makeup or cosmetics that contain ingredients that can trigger allergic reactions can cause eye irritation and tear. You can also avoid sharing with other people.

Caution for home remedies

Before using home remedies to luxury your eyes, it is best to refer a health professional. Some eye infections can be serious. Talk to your doctor if you think you have an eye infection. If you think your child has an eye infection, take him to the doctor instead of trying these home remedies.

Saltwater: Saltwater, or saline solution, is one of the most effective home remedies for eye infections. Saline is similar to tears, which is how the eye naturally cleans itself. Salt also has antimicrobial properties. Because of this, it stands to reason that saline can effectively treat eye infections.

Teabags: Placing cold tea bags on your eyes while they are closed can be a way to relax and unwind. Some say it can be an effective home treatment for eye infections. Some types of tea have anti-inflammatory and soothing properties. For example, studies have suggested that green tea, chamomile, Trusted Source rooibos, and Trusted Source black tea have anti-inflammatory properties.

Because of this, using tea bags on the eyes could be an effective way to reduce puffiness. As of yet, there are no studies showing how teabags affect the eyes, or if they can be used to treat eye infections. Keep in mind that while anti-inflammatory treatments can alleviate symptoms, an eye infection must be treated at the cause.

Warm compress: If your eyes are sore, ill, or irritated, a warm compress can help. A 2014 study of 22 participants suggested that warm compresses can improve eye health in those with healthy eyes. A 2012 review of studies, a trusted source, showed that warm compresses can help people with blepharitis, a condition that involves the eyelid becoming inflamed and crusting.

Also, the American Academy of Ophthalmology suggests using a warm compress to ease the symptoms of conjunctivitis. Warm compresses may soothe styes by reducing the blockages that caused the stye. They can also help relieve dry eye symptoms. It is important to note that while warm compresses can provide relief, they cannot actually cure the condition.

Cold compress: Like hot compresses, cold compresses do not exactly cure eye infections. However, they can ease the discomfort associated with certain eye diseases. Cold compresses can decrease swelling in the case of eye injuries and infections.

Wash bedding: Wash your towels and pillowcases daily when you have an eye infection, such as conjunctivitis. Since these substances come in contact with the infected eye, they can spread the infection to the other eye or cause somebody else in your family to develop an infection. Use hot water and detergent to kill any remaining bacteria.

Dispose of makeup: We all know that we shouldn’t share eye makeup, like mascara, eyeshadow, and eyeliner, to avoid things like eye infections. But you should also dispose of your own eye and face makeup, and makeup brushes, if you used them while you had an infected eye. This ensures that it will not be reinfected.

Symptoms and causes of watery eyes

Tears are important because they keep our eyes lubricated and prevent foreign particles and infections from entering. Watery eyes or epiphora, as it is called in medical terminology, is the condition in which tears overflow into the face instead of being drained by the nasolacrimal system. When this happens, your vision becomes blurry, affecting your daily activities.

This could be due to excessive tear production or poor tear drainage due to blocked tear ducts and can be due to a number of underlying reasons, some of which may necessitate consultation with an ophthalmologist.

Simply put, some of the reasons that can cause watery eyes to include:

  • Reaction to chemical fumes
  • Infectious conjunctivitis
  • Allergic conjunctivitis
  • Eye injuries
  • Trichiasis or ingrown eyelashes
  • Eyelid turned outward (ectropion) or inward (entropion)
  • Keratitis or infection of the cornea
  • Corneal ulcers
  • Styes
  • Bell’s palsy
  • Dry eyes
  • Certain medications
  • Environmental conditions such as dust, wind, cold, bright light, smog
  • Common cold, sinus problems, and allergies
  • Blepharitis or inflammation of the eyelid
  • Cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation

How to stop watery eyes

Tears remove toxins and foreign invaders, protect the surface of the eye, and provide nutrients to those who look. Something as simple as laughing or yawning can make your eyes water; You can also spend too much time in bright light or in front of screens. Neither of these is of great concern.

But creating too many tears can also be a harbinger of trouble. If you have watery eyes with changes in vision, pain, a lump near the tear duct, or the sensation of something in your eyes that does not go away, contact a medical professional. Also, seek help if the tear does not go away.

Prevention of watery eyes

To prevent eye infections, always use the following preventive measures:

  • Avoid touching your eyes directly
  • Wash your hands often, especially after touching dirty surfaces
  • If you wear contact lenses, always clean them and store them properly
  • Avoid sharing eye makeup or makeup brushes with other people
General Topics

Diagnosis of Conjunctivitis in Children | Ophthalmology

What is conjunctivitis in children?

Conjunctivitis in children is inflammation of the lining of the eye over the eyeball and inside the eyelids. Infection with bacteria or viruses can cause conjunctivitis. Infection occurs easily, especially if the eye is already irritated. Sometimes children can develop conjunctivitis as part of a cold.

Viral conjunctivitis is very contagious, but bacterial conjunctivitis is not. conjunctivitis in children’s condition is often classified as neonatal conjunctivitis or infantile conjunctivitis. Each group has different causes and treatments.

Types of conjunctivitis in children

  1. Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Bacterial conjunctivitis is another common type of pink eye in which viruses are spread through the air by sneezing and coughing. Bacterial conjunctivitis is a common viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, such as measles, the flu, or the common cold.
  2. Viral Conjunctivitis: Viral conjunctivitis is a common infection in the Western population and is often associated with other infections throughout the body. Due to their correlation with respiratory anatomy, viral upper respiratory infections are a common cause of secondary viral conjunctivitis.
  3. Gonococcal and chlamydial conjunctivitis: It is caused by a bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhea. The newborn passes this type of conjunctivitis through the birth canal of the infected mother. This type of conjunctivitis can be prevented with the use of eye drops at birth in newborns. Newborn eyes are often very red, with thick discharge and swelling of the eyelids. This type usually begins 2 to 4 days after birth. Treatment of gonococcal conjunctivitis usually involves antibiotics through an intravenous (IV) catheter.
  4. Allergic Conjunctivitis: Caused by an allergy, not an infection, not an infection. Antibiotic eye drops may not help, but allergy eye drops can. It usually affects both eyes and the main symptoms in children are watery eyes and itching.
  5. Non-infectious conjunctivitis: Conjunctivitis, which is caused by irritation of the eyes, causes symptoms of conjunctivitis that can occur from a variety of sources, including smoke, diesel exhaust, perfumes, and certain chemicals. Some types of conjunctivitis stem from sensitivity to certain substances ingested, including herbs such as conjunctiva and turmeric.

Causes of conjunctivitis in children

Conjunctivitis in children may be caused by:

  • Bacteria (several different varieties may cause conjunctivitis)
  • Viruses (such as adenovirus or herpes virus)
  • Allergies
  • Exposure to chemicals (rarely, the drops given to newborns for preventing conjunctivitis may have the reverse effect and may irritate the eye)

The causes and treatments of conjunctivitis in children among newborns may differ.

Symptoms of conjunctivitis in children

The following are common symptoms of the condition. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. There may be symptoms:

  • Gritty feeling in one or both eyes
  • Itchy, irritated eyes
  • Clear, thin drainage and increased tearing
  • Sneezing and runny nose
  • Stringy discharge from the eyes
  • Thick, green drainage from the eyes
  • Ear infection
  • A lesion with a crusty appearance
  • Eyes that are matted together in the morning
  • Swelling of the eyelids
  • Pink or red discolouration of the whites of one or both eyes
  • Discomfort when the child looks at a light
  • Burning in the eyes

The symptoms of conjunctivitis in children sometimes resemble other medical problems. Always see your child’s healthcare provider for an examination.

Diagnosis of conjunctivitis in children

Conjunctivitis in children can be diagnosed by its symptoms, and the exact cause can be determined by the paediatrician. Since there are other conditions, such as hay fever, that have similar symptoms, it is important to see a paediatrician as soon as possible.

Common symptoms of infectious conjunctivitis are red, watery, and sticky eyes. However, infectious conjunctivitis is sometimes confused with other types of conjunctivitis, which are treated differently.

Conjunctivitis in children treatment

Treatment depends on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It also depends on the cause of the situation, for example:

  • Bacterial infections: It is administered with antibiotic eye drops.
  • Viral infection: Viral conjunctivitis generally does not require treatment. In some cases, antibiotic eye drops can be used to prevent secondary infection.
  • Allergic reaction: Treatment of conjunctivitis caused by allergies generally involves treating the allergies. Your child’s primary care provider may prescribe oral medications or eye drops to help with allergies.
  • Herpes infection: If your child has an eye infection caused by a herpes infection, her paediatrician may refer her to an eye care specialist. You can give your child both oral medications and eye drops.

If the disease is affected by an infection, it is important to know that the disease can spread from one eye to another by touching the affected eye or the fluid that comes out of the eye. The infection can also spread to other people. Fluid from the eye comes out 24 to 48 hours after starting treatment.

To help prevent the spread of infection, you should wash your hands frequently while caring for your baby. Make sure your child does not touch her eyes. Your child should wash her hands often.

Prevention of conjunctivitis in children

Conjunctivitis spreads throughout the nursery or preschool. In some cases, the infection is passed on to the friends of young children, who pass it on to the child.

Common prevention strategies reduce the spread of infections and reduce the risk of recurrent conjunctivitis:

  • Encourage young children to avoid touching or rubbing their eyes.
  • Keep school children away from school with a fever or thick eye discharge.
  • Don’t share eye care products like contact lenses, glasses, or eye makeup. Encourage children not to share these products.
  • Practice washing your hands frequently.
  • Encourage children not to touch their friends’ faces.

Complications of conjunctivitis in children

Pink eye is a depressing condition, especially allergic conjunctivitis, but in most cases, it does not pose a serious health threat.

Complications of conjunctivitis are very rare, but when they do occur they are serious and include:

  • A severe case of allergic conjunctivitis can lead to scarring of the eye
  • In cases of infectious conjunctivitis, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and trigger more serious secondary infections, such as meningitis.

When to contact the doctor

  • Worsening drainage or discharge from the eye
  • Fever in addition to pink eye
  • Blistering or rash on the eyelids
  • Severe light sensation or pain
  • Vision problems
  • Any injury to the eye
  • Symptoms that do not change within a week.
General Topics

About Eye Problems In Children | Ophthalmology

Eye problems in children

There are many types of eye problems and diseases that can affect a child’s vision. If an eye condition is suspected or if the child fails a vision test, he should be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist for further evaluation and diagnosis. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent lifelong vision defects.

There are some types of eye problems in children:

1. Astigmatism

Astigmatism, a common eye problem in children is a refractive disorder that affects the shape of the cornea or lens. For near and far objects, vision can be blurred because the affected eye does not focus. Astigmatism coexists with both myopia and hyperopia and should be corrected as soon as it is diagnosed.

Diagnosing astigmatism in children is difficult because children with astigmatism sometimes do not recognize the ambiguity they need to see as a notification condition. Comprehensive eye exams are needed to make a proper diagnosis and rule out other eye problems.

Treatment for astigmatism

The goal of astigmatism treatment is to improve visual acuity and eye comfort. Treatments are corrective lenses or refractive surgery.

Eyeglasses: Glasses are made with lenses that help replace the asymmetrical shape of your eye. Lenses allow light to tilt your eye correctly. Glasses can also correct other refractive errors such as myopia or hyperopia.

Contact lenses: Some people have better vision with contact lenses instead of glasses. Contact lenses can provide clear vision and panoramic vision. However, since contact lenses are worn directly on the eyes, regular cleaning and care are required to maintain eye health. Regular soft lenses may not be effective in improving astigmatism.

Special toric soft contact lenses can be adjusted for a wide variety of astigmatism. Because rigid gas permeable contact lenses maintain their regular shape while on the cornea, they can replace the irregular shape of the cornea and improve vision for people with astigmatism.

Orthokeratology: Orthokeratology (ortho-K) involves fitting a series of rigid contact lenses to redesign the cornea. The patient uses contact lenses for a short time, such as at night, and then separates them.

People with moderate astigmatism may temporarily have clear vision without glasses for their daily activities. Orthokeratology does not permanently improve vision. If patients stop wearing retinal lenses, their vision can return to its original state.

Laser and other refractive surgeries: Performed with LASIK laser technology (photorefractive keratectomy) or manual incisions (radial keratotomy), which rescue the cornea by removing small pieces of tissue from the cornea.

2. Cataract

Cataracts are one of the common eye problems in children caused by cloudy spots that develop on the lens of the eye. Children experience cataracts as blurred vision, which affects their development and leads to permanent vision loss. The lens is inside the eye, back the iris. Pediatric cataracts can occur in one or both eyes.

Treatment for cataract

Treatment depends on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It also depends on the hardness of the situation. Treatment will be determined by your child’s healthcare provider based on your child’s cataracts.

In some cases, your child may require glasses or contact lenses. This will help your child look better. Most children older than 1 year will need surgery to remove the cataract and a new lens will be inserted.

3. Ptosis

Ptosis, one of the common eye problems in children is a narrowing of the upper eyelid. The eyelid is only slightly lowered or it may completely cover the pupil or eye. Ptosis affects one or both eyelids. In some cases, ptosis can limit and prevent normal vision. Sometimes there is congenital ptosis; In other cases, it occurs later in life due to injury or illness.

Treatment for ptosis

Eyelid lift surgery repairs the upper eyelids.

  • If vision is not affected, surgery can wait for 3 to 4 years for the child to grow a little.
  • In severe cases, immediate surgery is needed to prevent “lazy eye” (amblyopia).

The provider also treats any eye problems caused by ptosis. Your children may need:

  • Wear an eye patch to strengthen vision in the weak eye.
  • Wear special glasses to correct the irregular curve of the cornea that causes blurred vision (astigmatism).

Children with mild ptosis should have regular eye exams to prevent the development of amblyopia.

Surgery works well to improve the appearance and function of the eye. Some children require more than one surgery.

4. Hyperopia

Farsightedness, one of the common eye problems in children appears to be a refractive error, so the image is centered behind the retina, and vision is blurred. The cause may be in the eyeball or the optical power of the cornea and lens may be less than necessary. There is also a specific genealogical component.

Treatment for hyperopia

Hyperopia can be treated with corrective contact lenses or protective glasses. Alternatively, eye surgery can be very effective for the right candidates.

  • Conventional correction: Glasses or contact lenses in the form of positive lenses.
  • Surgical correction: The two surgical procedures available are laser eye surgery and clear lens removal. The latter is similar to cataract surgery but involves the removal of a clear lens (without cataracts).

If your hyperopia treatment is a surgical correction, it is important to speak with your eye surgeon about your choice. Your age, the severity of your hyperopia, the thickness of your corneas, and whether you have other eye conditions are many factors to consider.

5. Glaucoma

Glaucoma, one of the common eye problems in children is a disease that affects the optic nerves of the eye. This usually happens when fluid forms in front of your eye. That excess fluid increases the pressure in the eye and damages the optic nerve.

Symptoms start very slowly, you may not notice them. The only way to know if you have glaucoma is a comprehensive dilated eye exam.

Treatment for glaucoma

Doctors use a variety of glaucoma treatments, including medications (usually eye drops), laser treatment, and surgery.

  • Low pressure by reducing the amount of fluid produced in the eye, in the form of medications, eye drops, or tablets, and increasing drainage. One or more drugs can be used simultaneously.
  • Laser therapy to reduce pressure in the eye is done on a patient basis. A method called laser trabeculoplasty increases fluid drainage in patients with open-angle glaucoma. people with angle-closure glaucoma must be treated with a procedure commonly called laser iridotomy, which creates a small opening (part of the color of the eyes) in the iris that allows the drainage angle to open.
  • Surgery may be necessary to create a second drainage path in the eye to support the natural ones. Glaucoma surgery is usually performed on a patient-by-patient basis under local anesthesia and can allow the patient to reduce or eliminate glaucoma medication.

For more advanced cases, an artificial glaucoma drainage implant can help reduce stress. The implant helps drain excess fluid that builds up in the body.

6. Strabismus

Strabismus, one of the common eye problems in children also known as hypertrophy and crossed eyes, is a misalignment of the eyes, causing one eye to point toward the nose (esotropia) or outward (exotropia), while the other eye is centered.

Misalignment occurs once in newborns, especially if they are tired, they should get over it by the age of three months. In children, uncorrected strabismus can lead to amblyopia, in which case the brain begins to ignore the weak and misaligned signals sent by the eyes, which can lead to vision problems.

Treatment for strabismus

A complete vision evaluation is important to accurately diagnose strabismus (and/or amblyopia). Some types of strabismus are visually recognizable, but the test should include a thorough assessment of the visual system, including a binocular vision assessment to see how the eyes focus and move. Assessing visual acuity alone is not enough. You can expect your ophthalmologists to take a complete history.

It is common to test near and far acuity when evaluating the general health and structure of the eye. The doctor will make a cover to specifically test and diagnose strabismus. Test (also known as the coverage test), as well as the Hirschberg test (also known as Hirschberg corneal reflex test).

7. Amblyopia

Amblyopia, one of the common eye problems in children is when the vision in one or both eyes does not develop properly in childhood. This is sometimes called laziness. Amblyopia is a common problem in infants and young children.

A child’s vision develops during the first years of life. It is necessary to diagnose and treat amblyopia as soon as practicable. Otherwise, a child with amblyopia will not develop a normal, healthy vision.

Treatment for amblyopia

The earlier amblyopia is detected and treated, the better the outcome for the child. Treatment depends on the type of amblyopia the child has and how severe it is.

Glasses / Contact lenses: Corrective glasses or contact lenses are indicated if you have amblyopia because you are nearsighted or farsighted, or astigmatism in one eye.

Eye patch: Wearing a patch over your dominant eye can help strengthen your weak eye. Your doctor may recommend that you wear a patch for 1 to 2 hours a day, depending on the severity of your amblyopia. The patch helps develop the area of the brain that controls vision.

Eye drops: You can use eye drops once or twice a day to cloud your vision in your good eye. Like an eye patch, it encourages your weaker eye to wear more. It is an alternative to the patch.

Surgery: If you cross your eyes or your eyes point in opposite directions, your eye muscles may need surgery.

8. Pink eye

Pinkeye, one of the common eye problems in children is the common name for conjunctivitis, which causes inflammation and redness of the lining of the eye. The pinkeye can be caused by viruses, bacterial infections, allergies, or chemical factors. Sometimes it is the result of a chronic illness. Most commonly, the viral or bacterial infection causes pinkeye.

Treatment for pink eye

Treatment may include antibiotic eye drops or ointments and depending on the type of pinkeye.

Purulent pinkeye with a pink or red eyeball, white or yellow discharge, red or sticky eyelids, and eye discomfort usually caused by bacteria. It can be treated with antibiotics (eye drops or ointments) to prevent the disease from spreading to other people.

Non-purulent pinkeye, where the eyeball is pink or red, but the discharge is clear or watery, with only slight or uncomfortable. It usually causes a virus or other irritation (such as an allergy or exposure to a chemical such as chlorine in a swimming pool). The antibiotic drop does not work for this type of pinkeye.

9. Uveitis

Uveitis, one of the common eye problems in children is an inflammation of the uvea (or uveal membrane), the three middle layers that make up the eye. It can be contagious or contagious. It is a treatable condition; However, without proper treatment, it can lead to other problems such as glaucoma, cataracts, optic nerve damage, retinal detachment, and severe vision loss.

Treatment for uveitis

Steroids are the main treatment for uveitis. This will help reduce the inflammation inside your eye.

Different types of steroid medications are recommended depending on the type of uveitis. For example:

  • Eyedrops are often used for uveitis that hits the front of the eye.
  • Injections, tablets, and capsules are usually used to treat uveitis that affects the middle and back of the eye.

Additional treatment may also be necessary. They can be eye drops to reduce pain or, in some cases, surgery.


Are opticians a doctors? | Ophthalmology

What is an optician?

The optician is the first person people encounter when seeking visual care. Opticians are directly involved in customer service and most of them work in eye care stores. Meanwhile, other opticians are working for optometrists who practice in the medical profession. However, optician often spends more time with clients than anyone during their eyesight care experience. But the role of an optometrist isn’t just limited to serving clients. opticians generally only deal with lens fitting and dispensing.

What do they do?

Opticians are the lens experts. People come to them after they get a prescription for corrective lenses from an optometrist or ophthalmologist. The optometrists then take that prescription, consult the patient, and come up with the best lens option for him or her. One of the most interesting things an optician does is make lenses; They can shape the lenses to match a specific eyeglass frame, make their own contact lenses, or carefully prepare an artificial eye for a patient in need.

They also manufacture special types of lenses such as bifocal or trifocal lenses to help people with complex visual problems. Patients go to optometrists with their vision prescriptions to get their lenses. It is the responsibility of the optician to ensure that the patient is comfortable with the lenses and that the prescription is filled correctly.

Opticians spend a lot of their time working with patients to make sure they leave comfortably and are ready to use whatever lenses they get right. While opticians are primarily concerned with seeing patients, they must also consider people’s preferences when it comes to style. Distinguished Opticians will suit patients with comfortable and stylistically attractive lenses. Registered opticians are specially trained to design, fit and dispense eyeglasses, contact lenses, low vision aids, and prosthetic eye devices.


Registered opticians prepare work orders that provide ophthalmic laboratory technicians with the information needed to grind and frame the lenses. The work order includes the strength of the lenses and information about their size, material, color, and style. Some registered opticians grind and insert the lenses themselves. After the glasses are made, registered opticians check that the lenses are modeled to the specifications. They are trained to adjust the glasses by hand or using special tools to ensure that the glasses fit the customer correctly and comfortably. Some also repair, adjust, and reinstall broken tires. They guide clients about adjusting, wearing, or caring for eyeglasses.


Registered opticians recommend eyeglass frames, lenses, and lens coatings after considering the strength of the lenses and the client’s profession, habits, and facial features. Registered opticians measure customers’ eyes, including the separation between the focuses of the students and the separation between the surface and the lens. Some customers want to replace their existing eyeglasses without looking for a new prescription from an ophthalmologist or optometrist. Registered opticians will then use a lensometer to record current eyeglass measurements to create a new pair of glasses with the same lens strength. They can also obtain a client’s history or check the strength of the lenses with an eye doctor or examining eye doctor.

Contact lenses, cosmetic shells, artificial eyes

Some registered opticians specialize in wearing contact lenses, artificial eyes, or cosmetic caps to cover blemished eyes. To design and fit these devices, registered opticians measure the shape and size of the eye, choose the type of contact lens material, and prepare work orders that determine the strength of the lenses and lens size. In some cases, registered opticians prepare eye molds, which are used to manufacture some of these specialized devices.

This job requires a great deal of skill, care, and patience. Registered optician monitor clients’ eyes, corneas, caps, and contact lenses using special tools and devices. During several visits, our registered optician’s brief clients on how to insert, remove and care for contact lenses, cosmetic wrappers, or prosthetic eyes. Registered opticians do all this to make sure the fit is correct.

Low vision aids

Many visually impaired people feel they must give up reading because a once-enjoyable activity has become so difficult. However, the registered optician can help assist the visually impaired to make reading easier, more comfortable, and enjoyable. Uncommonly prepared registered opticians will talk with outwardly impeded customers and plan the best framework for that individual, their life circumstance, and their particular visual restrictions.

Devices can range from hand-held magnifying lens systems to high-tech electronic or electronic systems. The number of people with a visual impairment is increasing and many will find that registered optician can meet their needs using these specialist vision impairment aids.


Optometrists | Conditions they treat | Ophthalmology

What is an optometrist?

An optometrist is an eye care professional with a degree in optics. Optometrists check eyes for vision and health problems, and correct refractive errors by prescribing eyeglasses and contact lenses. A few optometrists likewise offer low vision care and vision treatment.

Optometrists may also be involved in your care before and after surgery if you’ve had eye surgery done by an ophthalmologist. Optometrists in the UK are not prepared or authorized to perform eye medical procedures.

An optometrist must complete a degree in optometry and then successfully complete a one-year pre-registration period of training under the supervision of an experienced optometrist. This includes a work-based assessment and a final assessment of the core competencies of Optometry.

Services and what optometrist can treat

You can visit an optometrist for an annual eye exam, to refill your eyeglasses or prescription, or even to receive medication and treatment for some eye conditions. Unlike an ophthalmologist, an optometrist is not a specialist in surgery and cannot treat more serious eye conditions.

Optometrists provide the following services:

  • Annual or routine eye exams, including eye health education
  • Diagnose eye diseases
  • Prescriptions for eyeglasses, contact lenses, and other visual aids
  • Medical treatments or minor surgical procedures for eye diseases
  • Eye care after surgery

Conditions optometrists treat

Here are some conditions that optometrists can treat.


Glaucoma refers to damage to the optic nerve that connects the eye to the brain. It is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States, affecting more than 3 million people. An optometrist can diagnose glaucoma and create a treatment plan.


A cataract occurs when the lens in the eye appears cloudy. It can grow larger, seriously affecting vision, and possibly blindness.

Albeit an optometrist can analyze cataracts and prescribe cataracts and recommend eyeglasses to help treat side effects, specific medical procedures from an ophthalmologist might be vital. The optometrist will also provide pre and post-operative care.

Retinal disorders

Most retinal problems share comparable indications, for example, obscured vision or vision misfortune. These disorders include floaters, retinal tearing or detachment, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and epiretinal membrane.

Optometrists can diagnose retinal disorders and may refer a person to an ophthalmologist if treatment is necessary.


Myopia is also known as myopia, which is a visual condition that makes focusing on distant objects difficult.

Treatments include eyeglasses, contact lenses, and laser therapy procedures for refractive cornea, or surgery (in extreme cases). The ophthalmologist usually performs laser or surgery procedures.

Colour blindness

Optometrists regularly check kids for partial blindness in routine appraisals. The diagnosis is also evident as an adult. There is currently no cure, but eyeglasses and contact lenses, like many optical aids, can help.

Systemic diseases

Some systemic diseases have visual manifestations. Optometrists can help screen for diabetes, high blood pressure, thyroid cancer, and HIV.

Optometrists can prescribe controlled medications for eye diseases. Depending on state legislation, some optometrists can also perform minor surgery. These surgical procedures may include the removal of foreign bodies, laser eye surgery, and some additional surgical interventions.


Ophthalmologist | What conditions do they treat? | Ophthalmology

What is an ophthalmologist?

Ophthalmologists are specialists who work in the medical and surgical care of the eyes. They can either be Doctors of Medicine (MD) or Orthopedic Doctors (DO). They provide complete eye care, such as vision services, eye exams, medical and surgical care, diagnose and treat diseases, and manage complications from other conditions, such as diabetes.

When to see an ophthalmologist?

Most people see an ophthalmologist because they have chronic or severe vision symptoms or signs of eye diseases, such as:

  • Swollen eyes
  • Decreased, distorted, blocked, or double vision
  • Excessive tearing
  • Eyelid abnormalities or problems
  • Seeing colored circles or halos around lights
  • Deviated eyes
  • Black spots or chains called floaters in the field of vision
  • See flashes of light
  • Unexplained redness of the eye
  • Loss of peripheral vision

An individual may require crisis care from an ophthalmologist if their side effects include:

  • Sudden loss or changes in vision
  • Sudden or severe eye pain
  • Eye injury

A person may also receive a referral to an ophthalmologist if they have conditions or factors that can increase the risk of developing eye diseases, such as:

  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetic
  • A family history of eye diseases
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Thyroid diseases, such as Graves’ disease

Usually, the family doctor, paediatrician, emergency room doctor, or optometrist will refer a person to an ophthalmologist. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends that people undergo a complete medical examination of their eyes by age 40 so that an ophthalmologist can establish a basic profile of their eye health.

Having a baseline of eye health is important because it makes it easier for doctors to detect or track eye or vision changes, which are often subtle and difficult to detect. Even healthy people can suddenly develop severe eye diseases.

What conditions can ophthalmologists treat?

People are referred to an ophthalmologist when they have it:

  • Partial or complete loss of vision
  • Eye injuries, pain, or infections
  • Eye diseases, such as glaucoma
  • Health conditions that can affect their eyes, including diabetes and high blood pressure
  • Visual impairment that requires specialized care

Ophthalmologists are surgeons and can do this:

  • Cataract surgery, in which the lens of a person’s eye is replaced
  • Refractive surgery or laser, which involves reshaping the cornea to correct nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism
  • Surgery to correct deviated eyes or strabismus
  • Surgery to remove cancers, such as melanoma, from the eye
  • Treatment to repair the damage caused by an injury to the eye

What procedures do they do?

Most ophthalmologists are prepared and ensured to play out a wide scope of medical and surgical procedures. The procedures that an ophthalmologist performs regularly depend on several factors, such as the type of practice and the speciality they work in.

Some of the most common daily procedures performed by an ophthalmologist include diagnosing and monitoring eye conditions and mild vision. They will also spend time prescribing and fitting eyeglasses and contact lenses to correct vision problems.

Ophthalmologists who specialize in subspecialties tend to perform a smaller set of procedures daily, focusing instead on treating one or a few related conditions.

It usually includes procedures performed by subspecialists:

  • Diagnose and monitor moderate to severe eye conditions.
  • Cataract surgery
  • Glaucoma surgery
  • Refractive surgery to correct vision
  • Cancer treatment
  • Reconstructive surgery to repair trauma or birth defects, such as crossed eyes.
  • Chronic or severe tear duct infections or obstruction
  • Tumor removal (tumor, cyst, or foreign body)
  • Monitoring or counselling in cases related to other conditions, such as diabetic retinopathy or immune diseases
  • Injections around the eyes and face to change the function and shape of the face.
  • Repairing a torn or detached retina
  • Corneal transplant

What is an Ultrasound Scan | Ophthalmology

What’s an eye and orbit ultrasound?

Ophthalmic and orbital ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to measure and produce detailed images of the eye’s orbit (the cavity in your skull that catches your eye). This test provides a more detailed view of the inside of your eye than a routine eye exam.

Usually, an ultrasound technician or ophthalmologist (a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders and eye diseases) will perform this procedure (sometimes called eye studies). Eye studies may be done in an office, outpatient imaging center, or hospital.

Why I need an eye and orbit ultrasound?

Your ophthalmologist may order eye studies if you have unexplained problems with your eyes or if you have recently had an injury or trauma to the eye area.

This procedure is useful in identifying eye problems as well as diagnosing eye diseases. It includes some issues the test can help identify:

  • Tumors or tumors that affect the eye
  • External influences
  • Retinal detachment

An ultrasound of the eyes and shellfish may also be used to aid in diagnosis or monitoring:

  • Glaucoma (progressive disease leading to loss of vision)
  • Cataracts (cloudy areas of the lens)
  • Lens implants (plastic lenses implanted in the eye after the natural lens has been removed, usually due to a cataract)

Your doctor can also use this procedure to measure the thickness and extent of the cancerous tumor and determine treatment options.

Preparation of ultrasound

Ophthalmic and orbital ultrasound does not require any specific preparation. There is no pain associated with this procedure. Numbing drops will be used to numb your eye and reduce discomfort. The pupil will not dilate, but your vision may be temporarily blurred during the test.

You will be able to drive 30 minutes after the procedure, although you will still feel comfortable driving with someone else. Your eye doctor will advise you not to rub your eyes until the anesthetic has completely gone. This is to protect you from accidentally scratching your cornea.

Procedure of ultrasound

The test is often done in an ophthalmologist’s office or in the ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (numbing drops). An ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed on the front surface of the eye.

Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves that are transmitted through the eye. The reflections (echoes) of the sound waves form a picture of the eye’s structure. The test takes about 15 minutes.

There are two types of scans: are A-scan and B-scan.


  • Most of the time you’ll sit in a chair with your chin resting. You will look straight ahead
  • A small probe is placed in front of your eye
  • The test may also be done while you are lying down. This way, a cup filled with liquid is placed over your eye for the test


  • You will sit and be asked to look in many directions. The test is often done with your eyes closed
  • A gel is applied to the skin of your eyelids. The B-scan probe is gently placed on your eyelids for the test

Normal Results

For A-scan, eye measurements are in the normal range

For a B test, the eye and socket structures appear normal

What Abnormal Results Mean

A picture of B may appear:

  • Bleeding into the clear gel (vitreous) that fills the back of the eye (vitreous hemorrhage)
  • Cancer of the retina (retinoblastoma), under the retina, or in other parts of the eye (such as melanoma)
  • Tissue damage or injuries to the bony (orbital) cavity that surrounds and protects the eye
  • Foreign bodies
  • Pulling the retina away from the back of the eye (retinal detachment)
  • Swelling (inflammation)

Preparation of Slit Lamp Exam | Procedure | Ophthalmology

What is the slit lamp exam?

The slit lamp examination is a standard diagnostic procedure, also known as biomicroscopy. A slit lamp combines a microscope with very bright light. The slit lamp exam is usually part of a comprehensive eye exam. The individual will sit in a chair in front of the slit lamp with the chin and forehead supported by a support.

The doctor can use this instrument to observe the eyes in detail and determine if there are any abnormalities. They will be able to discuss the results with the person right away.

Uses of slit lamp examination

Doctors use the slit lamp as part of a comprehensive eye exam to better look at the structures within a person’s eyes. These include the following:

  • Conjunctiva: The conjunctiva is a thin, transparent membrane that covers the white of the eye. It also includes the membranous surface of the inner lids.
  • Cornea: The cornea is the transparent cover of the iris and pupil. It protects the eye and also helps send light through the pupil to the retina at the back of the eye.
  • Eyelids: The eyelids help protect the eyeball from debris or injury. Blinking helps lubricate the eye and prevent it from drying out.
  • Iris: the iris is the coloured portion of the eye. It controls the quantity of light that arrives in the eye by contracting and dilating the pupil.
  • Pupil: The pupil is the black spot in the middle of the eye. It occupancies light to enter the eye and travel to the retina.
  • Lens: The lens is placed behind the iris and focuses light on the retina.
  • Sclera: The sclera is the white portion of the eye. It consists of relatively strong fibrous tissue that helps provide structure and protection to the rest of the eye.
  • Retina: The retina is the tissue in the eye that contains cells that detect light. These cells join nerves that eventually join to form the optic nerve.

Process undergoing slit lamp examination

After the first look into your eyes, your doctor may apply a special dye called fluorescein to make the exam easier. It will be given as an eye drop or on a small, thin strip of paper that touches the white of the eye. The doctor will then manage a series of eye drops that will dilate the pupils. Enlargement will make it easier for the doctor to see the other structures in the eye. The drops take about 20 minutes to work.

Once the person has dilated pupils, the doctor will repeat the eye exam. This period they will grip a particular lens close to the eye.
The procedure does not hurt, although there may be a brief sting during the application of the eye drops. Dilated pupils develop very large, which can make the eyes sensitive to light. This can make driving or outlay time outside painful. However, the eye drops should garb off within a combine of hours, and wearing sunglasses should help during this period.

Slit lamp exam preparation

There is no special preparation for this test. If the doctor plans to dilate the pupils, the person may want to wear sunglasses and arrange a trip home after the test.

Risk factors in the slit lamp exam

A slit lamp exam is generally very safe, although medications that dilate the pupils carry some risks. They can increase eye pressure, causing nausea and eye pain. Anyone experiencing these symptoms should inform a doctor immediately.

Types of slit lamp exam

Other common eye exams include:

Wood’s lamp examination

Wood’s lamp projects ultraviolet light into the eye to reveal any abrasions or scratches on the cornea. Doctors can use this if a slit lamp is not available.

Fundus examination

During a fundus exam, the doctor will use an ophthalmoscope to look inside the eye. Some will use a direct ophthalmoscope, which is a small hand-held instrument with a light on. However, most doctors will use an indirect ophthalmoscope, as they can wear it on the head and it gives them a wider field of view for the exam. The patient will be asked to look into the distance while using the device to examine the internal structures of the eye.


For this process, the doctor will first administer numbing eye drops. The person will sit with their head supported by the slit lamp microscope, and the doctor will place a special contact lens directly over the eyeball. Happens during a slit lamp exam.

You do not need to prepare in advance for a slit lamp exam. Once you are in the exam chair, the doctor will place an instrument in front of you to support your chin and forehead. This helps stabilize the head for the exam. Your ophthalmologist may put drops in your eyes to make any abnormalities on the corneal surface more visible. The drops contain a yellow dye called fluorescein, which washes away tears. Additional drops may also be put in your eyes to allow your pupils to dilate or enlarge.

The doctor will use a low-power microscope, along with a slit lamp, which is a high-intensity light. They will look you in the eye closely. The slit lamp has different strainers to get different views of the eyes. Some doctor’s offices may have devices that detention digital images to track variations in the eyes over time.

Throughout the test, the doctor will examine all areas of your eye, including:

  • Eyelids
  • Conjunctiva
  • Iris
  • Lens
  • Sclera
  • Cornea
  • Retina
  • Optic nerve

Diagnosis in the test

A slit lamp exam can help diagnose the following circumstances:

  • Macular degeneration, a chronic condition that affects the part of the eye responsible for central vision.
  • Detached retina, a condition in which the retina, which is a main layer of tissue at the back of the eye, is shed from its base.
  • Cataracts, a clouding of the lens that damagingly affects the ability to see images visibly.
  • Corneal injury, an injury to one of the tissues that cover the surface of the eye.
  • Retinal vessel obstructions, obstructions in the blood vessels of the eye that can cause a sudden or gradual loss of vision.

Ask your doctor what you are looking for during the exam and what eye conditions you may be at risk for. This test usually has no major side effects. Your eyes may be sensitive to light for a time afterwards, especially if your pupils were dilated. If you start to feel nauseous or have pain in your eyes, return to your doctor’s office as soon as possible. These may be symptoms of increased fluid pressure in the eye, which can be a medical emergency. While the risk of this is small, eye drops used to dilate the eye can rarely cause this to occur.

Abnormal results mean

If the results of your slit lamp exam are abnormal, there can be a variety of conditions, including:

  • Infection
  • Inflammation
  • Increased pressure in the eye
  • Degeneration of the arteries or veins of the eye

For example, if macular degeneration is occurring, the doctor may find drusen, which are yellow deposits that can form in the macula at the beginning of age-related macular degeneration. If your doctor suspects a particular cause of vision problems, she may recommend more tests to get a more definitive diagnosis.


Why the Applanation Tonometry is done? | Ophthalmology

What is applanation tonometry?

Applanation Tonometry test measures the amount of pressure it takes to flatten a part of the cornea. Pressure readings help your doctor diagnose and track glaucoma. He will give you drops to numb your eye, then press lightly with a tool called a tonometer.

Why is applanation tonometry done?

Your eyes are full of different fluids that keep them healthy. New fluid is constantly being produced and the old fluid is drained. But if this drainage system becomes clogged, fluids build up. This increases the pressure inside the eyes.

Sometimes the pressure is due to an eye injury or trauma. Once your eye heals, everything will return to normal. But some people have a drainage system that doesn’t work the way it should.

Over time, the high pressure inside your eye can damage your optic nerve, which sends images from your eyes to your brain. If left untreated, it can cause glaucoma.

Since the disease usually has no symptoms, it is a good idea to have regular eye exams. Your ophthalmologist will monitor your eye pressure using a tonometry test. You can also track pressure changes over time.

Anyone can get glaucoma, but your chances are higher if:

  • You are over 40
  • You have a family member with glaucoma
  • Are African, Hispanic, or Asian
  • You have had an eye injury
  • You have hyperopia or myopia
  • You have been told that your corneas are thin in the middle
  • Do you have diabetes?
  • You have migraines
  • You have circulation problems (blood flow)

When applanation tonometry is done?

A normal test result means that the pressure in your eye is within the normal range and that you do not have glaucoma or other pressure-related eye problems. Conferring to the Glaucoma Research Substance, the normal pressure range is 12 to 22 mm Hg. The measurement “mmHg” stands for “millimetres of mercury”, which are the units used to record eye pressure.

If your test comes back with a pressure reading greater than 20 mm Hg, you may have glaucoma or pre-glaucoma. This is not always the case. Your test result may also show high blood pressure if you have had an eye injury or if you have bleeding in the front of the eye caused by blood vessel problems, inflammation, or other problems. Your doctor will discuss treatment options with you if you are diagnosed with glaucoma or pre-glaucoma.

Applanation tonometry procedure

Before the tonometry test, your ophthalmologist will put numbing drops in your eyes so you don’t feel like anything is touching them. Once your eye is numb, your doctor may touch the surface of the eye with a small, thin strip of paper that contains orange dye to tint it. This helps increase the accuracy of the test.

Then your doctor will place a machine called a “slit lamp” in front of you. It will support your chin and forehead on the supports provided. The lamp will then move towards your eyes until only the tip of the tonometer probe touches your cornea. By slightly flattening the cornea, the instrument can detect pressure in the eye. Your ophthalmologist will adjust the tension until you get an adequate reading.

Because your eyes are numb, you will not feel pain during the procedure. Tonometry is extremely safe. However, there is minimal risk that your cornea will be scratched when the tonometer touches your eye. However, even if this happens, it will usually heal in just a few days.

Complications of applanation tonometry

Corneal abrasion, aggravation of ocular globe rupture, the transmission of infections, and reaction to ocular drugs are possible complications of tonometry. The risk of these complications is considerably low (less than 1%).

Risk factors

Accurate and precise IOP readings are imperative to assess a patient’s risk of progressive optic nerve damage. Inaccurate or inconsistent IOP measurements prevent the clinician from making accurate decisions about treatment and management and can put the patient at risk for visual field loss.


Fluorescein Angiography | Procedure and Risks | Ophthalmology

What is a Fluorescein Angiography?

A fluorescein angiogram or fluorescein angiography is a medical procedure in which a fluorescent dye is injected into the bloodstream. The dye highlights the blood vessels at the back of the eye so they can be photographed.

This fluorescein angiography test is often used to monitor eye disorders. Your doctor may order it to confirm a diagnosis, determine an appropriate treatment, or monitor the condition of the vessels in the back of your eye.

How is fluorescein angiography performed?

FA is usually done in your ophthalmologist’s office. It often takes less than 30 minutes. This is what will happen:

  • Your ophthalmologist or an associate will put drops in your eyes to open (widen) your pupil.
  • A yellowish dye (fluorescein) is injected into a vein, usually in the arm. It takes 10-15 seconds for the dye to travel throughout your body. Over time, the dye reaches the blood vessels in the eye, causing them to “fluoresce” or glow.
  • As the dye clearances through your retina, a particular camera takes pictures. These imageries help your ophthalmologist see any difficulties or where to focus on treatment.

Fluorescein angiography used to

AF is often recommended to find and diagnose eye diseases that include:

  • Macular edema (swelling in the retina that distorts vision)
  • Diabetic retinopathy (damaged or abnormal blood vessels in the eye caused by diabetes)
  • Macular degeneration
  • blockage of the veins within the eye, called BRVO or CRVO
  • Macular fold (a wrinkle on the retina caused by a buildup of fluid behind it)
  • Ocular melanoma (a type of cancer that affects the eye)

FA is also used to:

  • Track changes in eye disease over time
  • Target treatment areas

Test administered in fluorescein angiography

Your doctor will perform the test by inserting standard dilating eye drops into your eyes. These make your pupils dilate. Then, you will be asked to rest your chin and forehead against the camera supports so that your head remains still throughout the test.

Then your doctor will use the camera to take many pictures of your inner eye. After your doctor has completed the first batch of images, they will give you a small injection into a vein in your arm. This injection contains a dye called fluorescein. Then your doctor will continue to take pictures as the fluorescein moves through your blood vessels to your retina.

Side effects and risks of fluorescein angiography

You may have about side effects from fluorescein angiography. This is what you may notice:

  • When you look at objects, they may appear dark or tinted. This side effect disappears in a few minutes.
  • Your skin may look a little yellow. This happens because the dye travels to all the veins in your body. Your skin will arrive at its normal colour in a few hours.
  • Your urine may aspect orange or dark yellow for up to 24 hours. This is because your kidneys will filter the dye from your blood.
  • You may feel a skin burn if the dye leaks out during the injection. This side effect disappears in a few minutes.

Although rare, there is a risk that you may have an allergic reaction to the fluorescein dye. People allergic to the dye may have hives or itchy skin. Very rarely, a person may have breathing problems or other serious problems. Your doctor can treat an allergic reaction with pills or injections.

Although rare, there is a risk that you may have an allergic reaction to the fluorescein dye. People allergic to the dye may have hives or itchy skin. Very rarely, a person may have breathing problems or other serious problems. Your doctor can treat an allergic reaction with pills or injections.

Understanding the results

Normal results

If your eye is healthy, the blood vessels will be normal in shape and size. There will be no blockages or leaks in the vessels.

Abnormal results

Abnormal results will reveal a leak or blockage in the blood vessels. This may be due to:

  • A circulatory problem
  • Cancer
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Macular degeneration
  • Hypertension
  • A tumor
  • Enlarged capillaries in the retina
  • Swelling of the optic disc

Expectation after the fluorescein angiogram test

Your pupils may remain dilated for up to 12 hours after the test is done. Fluorescein dye can also make your urine darker and orange for a few days.

Test addresses

Your doctor may recommend a fluorescein angiogram to determine if the blood vessels in the back of your eye are receiving adequate blood flow. It can also be used to help your doctor diagnose eye disorders, such as macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.

Macular degeneration

Macular degeneration occurs in the macula, which is the part of the eye that allows you to focus on fine details. Sometimes the disorder worsens so slowly that you may not notice any changes at all. In some people, it causes vision to deteriorate rapidly and blindness can occur in both eyes.

Because the disease destroys your focused central vision, it prevents you from:

  • See objects clearly
  • Drive
  • Reading
  • Watching television

Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is caused by long-term diabetes and results in permanent damage to the blood vessels in the back of the eye or the retina. The retina converts the images and light that enter the eye into signals, which are then transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve.

There are two types of this disorder:

  • Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, which occurs in the early stages of the disease
  • Proliferative diabetic retinopathy, which develops later and is more severe

Your doctor may also order a fluorescein angiogram to see if treatments for these eye disorders are working.

Preparation for the fluorescein angiogram test

  • You will need to arrange for someone to pick you up and drive you home, as your pupils will be dilated for up to 12 hours after the test.
  • Be sure to inform your doctor before the test of any prescriptions, over-the-counter medications, and herbal supplements you are taking. You should also inform your doctor if you are allergic to iodine.
  • If you wear contact lenses, you will need to remove them before the test.

The risks in the tests

The most common reaction is nausea and vomiting. You may also experience dry mouth or increased salivation, increased heart rate, and sneezing. In rare cases, you may have a severe allergic reaction, which may include the following:

  • Swelling of the larynx
  • Hives
  • Laboured breathing
  • Fainting
  • Heart attack

If you are pregnant or think you may be, you should avoid having a fluorescein angiogram. The risks to the unborn fetus are unknown.