General Topics

Diagnosis of Conjunctivitis in Children | Ophthalmology

What is conjunctivitis in children?

Conjunctivitis in children is inflammation of the lining of the eye over the eyeball and inside the eyelids. Infection with bacteria or viruses can cause conjunctivitis. Infection occurs easily, especially if the eye is already irritated. Sometimes children can develop conjunctivitis as part of a cold.

Viral conjunctivitis is very contagious, but bacterial conjunctivitis is not. conjunctivitis in children’s condition is often classified as neonatal conjunctivitis or infantile conjunctivitis. Each group has different causes and treatments.

Types of conjunctivitis in children

  1. Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Bacterial conjunctivitis is another common type of pink eye in which viruses are spread through the air by sneezing and coughing. Bacterial conjunctivitis is a common viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, such as measles, the flu, or the common cold.
  2. Viral Conjunctivitis: Viral conjunctivitis is a common infection in the Western population and is often associated with other infections throughout the body. Due to their correlation with respiratory anatomy, viral upper respiratory infections are a common cause of secondary viral conjunctivitis.
  3. Gonococcal and chlamydial conjunctivitis: It is caused by a bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhea. The newborn passes this type of conjunctivitis through the birth canal of the infected mother. This type of conjunctivitis can be prevented with the use of eye drops at birth in newborns. Newborn eyes are often very red, with thick discharge and swelling of the eyelids. This type usually begins 2 to 4 days after birth. Treatment of gonococcal conjunctivitis usually involves antibiotics through an intravenous (IV) catheter.
  4. Allergic Conjunctivitis: Caused by an allergy, not an infection, not an infection. Antibiotic eye drops may not help, but allergy eye drops can. It usually affects both eyes and the main symptoms in children are watery eyes and itching.
  5. Non-infectious conjunctivitis: Conjunctivitis, which is caused by irritation of the eyes, causes symptoms of conjunctivitis that can occur from a variety of sources, including smoke, diesel exhaust, perfumes, and certain chemicals. Some types of conjunctivitis stem from sensitivity to certain substances ingested, including herbs such as conjunctiva and turmeric.

Causes of conjunctivitis in children

Conjunctivitis in children may be caused by:

  • Bacteria (several different varieties may cause conjunctivitis)
  • Viruses (such as adenovirus or herpes virus)
  • Allergies
  • Exposure to chemicals (rarely, the drops given to newborns for preventing conjunctivitis may have the reverse effect and may irritate the eye)

The causes and treatments of conjunctivitis in children among newborns may differ.

Symptoms of conjunctivitis in children

The following are common symptoms of the condition. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. There may be symptoms:

  • Gritty feeling in one or both eyes
  • Itchy, irritated eyes
  • Clear, thin drainage and increased tearing
  • Sneezing and runny nose
  • Stringy discharge from the eyes
  • Thick, green drainage from the eyes
  • Ear infection
  • A lesion with a crusty appearance
  • Eyes that are matted together in the morning
  • Swelling of the eyelids
  • Pink or red discolouration of the whites of one or both eyes
  • Discomfort when the child looks at a light
  • Burning in the eyes

The symptoms of conjunctivitis in children sometimes resemble other medical problems. Always see your child’s healthcare provider for an examination.

Diagnosis of conjunctivitis in children

Conjunctivitis in children can be diagnosed by its symptoms, and the exact cause can be determined by the paediatrician. Since there are other conditions, such as hay fever, that have similar symptoms, it is important to see a paediatrician as soon as possible.

Common symptoms of infectious conjunctivitis are red, watery, and sticky eyes. However, infectious conjunctivitis is sometimes confused with other types of conjunctivitis, which are treated differently.

Conjunctivitis in children treatment

Treatment depends on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It also depends on the cause of the situation, for example:

  • Bacterial infections: It is administered with antibiotic eye drops.
  • Viral infection: Viral conjunctivitis generally does not require treatment. In some cases, antibiotic eye drops can be used to prevent secondary infection.
  • Allergic reaction: Treatment of conjunctivitis caused by allergies generally involves treating the allergies. Your child’s primary care provider may prescribe oral medications or eye drops to help with allergies.
  • Herpes infection: If your child has an eye infection caused by a herpes infection, her paediatrician may refer her to an eye care specialist. You can give your child both oral medications and eye drops.

If the disease is affected by an infection, it is important to know that the disease can spread from one eye to another by touching the affected eye or the fluid that comes out of the eye. The infection can also spread to other people. Fluid from the eye comes out 24 to 48 hours after starting treatment.

To help prevent the spread of infection, you should wash your hands frequently while caring for your baby. Make sure your child does not touch her eyes. Your child should wash her hands often.

Prevention of conjunctivitis in children

Conjunctivitis spreads throughout the nursery or preschool. In some cases, the infection is passed on to the friends of young children, who pass it on to the child.

Common prevention strategies reduce the spread of infections and reduce the risk of recurrent conjunctivitis:

  • Encourage young children to avoid touching or rubbing their eyes.
  • Keep school children away from school with a fever or thick eye discharge.
  • Don’t share eye care products like contact lenses, glasses, or eye makeup. Encourage children not to share these products.
  • Practice washing your hands frequently.
  • Encourage children not to touch their friends’ faces.

Complications of conjunctivitis in children

Pink eye is a depressing condition, especially allergic conjunctivitis, but in most cases, it does not pose a serious health threat.

Complications of conjunctivitis are very rare, but when they do occur they are serious and include:

  • A severe case of allergic conjunctivitis can lead to scarring of the eye
  • In cases of infectious conjunctivitis, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and trigger more serious secondary infections, such as meningitis.

When to contact the doctor

  • Worsening drainage or discharge from the eye
  • Fever in addition to pink eye
  • Blistering or rash on the eyelids
  • Severe light sensation or pain
  • Vision problems
  • Any injury to the eye
  • Symptoms that do not change within a week.
General Topics

Symptoms of Bone health and Osteoporosis | Endocrinology

What is osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a condition that affects the bones. Its name comes from the Latin “porous bones”. The inside of a healthy bone has tiny holes like a honeycomb. Osteoporosis increases the size of these areas, causing loss of strength and bone density. Also, the outside of the bone becomes weak and thin.

Osteoporosis can occur at any age, but it is more common in adults, especially women. More than 53 million people in the United States have or are at risk of developing osteoporosis. People with osteoporosis are at risk for fractures or fractures when they perform normal activities such as standing or walking.  The most commonly affected bones are the ribs, hips, and bones of the wrist and spine.

Bone is biological tissue that is constantly being degraded and replaced. Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone does not sustain the loss of old bone. Osteoporosis affects men and women of all races. But white and Asian women, especially older menopausal women, are at the highest risk. Medications, a healthy diet, and exercise with weights can help prevent bone loss or strengthen already weak bones.

What can I do to keep my bones healthy?

You can take some simple steps to prevent or delay bone loss. For example:

Include a lot of calcium in your diet. For adults ages, 19 to 50 and for men ages, 51 to 70, the recommended daily allowance (RDA) is 1,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium per day. The recommended dose is 1200 mg per day for women over 50 and men over 70.

Good sources of calcium are dairy products, soy products like almonds, broccoli, kale, canned salmon, sardines, and tofu. If you find it difficult to get enough calcium from your diet, ask your doctor about supplements.

Take care of vitamin D Your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. For adults ages 19 to 70, the RDA for vitamin D is 600 international units (IU) per day. For adults 71 and older, this recommendation increases to 800 IU per day.

Good sources of vitamin D are fatty fish such as salmon, trout, white fish, and tuna. Also, mushrooms, eggs, and fortified foods such as milk and whole grains are good sources of vitamin D. Sunlight also contributes to the body’s production of vitamin D.

Include physical activity in your daily routine. Weight-bearing exercises, such as walking, jogging, and stair climbing, can help you build strong bones and decrease bone loss.

Stay away from drug abuse. Do not smoke. If you are a woman, have no more than one drink a day. If you are a man, avoid drinking more than two drinks a day.

Importance of bone health

Your bones are constantly changing: new bone is forming and old bone is breaking. As a child, your body makes new bone faster than it breaks down old bone and increases your bone mass. Most people reach bone mass in their 30s. After that, the bone reconstruction will continue, but you will lose a little more bone mass than you gained.

A condition that causes bones to become weak and brittle (how likely you are to develop osteoporosis) depends on how much bone mass you gain when you reach your 30s and how quickly you lose it after that. At your peak bone mass, you have more bone on the “bank” and are less likely to develop osteoporosis as you age.

Does it affect bone health?

Bone health is affected by many factors. For example:

The amount of calcium in your diet. A diet low in calcium contributes to a decrease in bone density, a risk of early bone loss and fractures.

Physical activity: Those who are physically inactive are at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis than their active counterparts.

Tobacco and alcohol: Research suggests that tobacco use contributes to weak bones. Similarly, more than one alcoholic drink a day for women on a regular basis or two alcoholic drinks a day for men increases the risk of osteoporosis.

Gender: If you are a woman, you are at risk of developing osteoporosis because women have less bone tissue than men.

Size: If you are very thin (with a body mass index of 19 or less) or have a small body frame, you are at risk because your bone mass is lower than your age.

Years: As you get older, your bones become thinner and weaker.

Ethnic and family history: If you are white or of Asian descent, you are at risk of developing osteoporosis. Also, having parents or siblings with osteoporosis puts you at higher risk, especially if you also have a family history of fractures.

Hormone levels: Too much thyroid hormone can cause bone loss. In women, decreasing estrogen levels can significantly increase bone loss at menopause. The absence of premenopausal amenorrhea also increases the risk of osteoporosis. In men, low testosterone levels lead to loss of bone mass.

Eating disorders and other conditions: People with anorexia or bulimia are at risk for bone loss. Also, conditions such as stomach surgery (gastrectomy), weight loss surgery, and Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, and Cushing’s disease can affect the body’s ability to absorb calcium.

Some drugs: Long-term use of corticosteroid medications such as prednisone, cortisone, prednisolone, and dexamethasone can cause bone damage. Other medications that increase the risk of osteoporosis include aromatase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, methotrexate, phenytoin (Dilantin), and some anti-seizure medications such as phenobarbital and proton pump inhibitors to treat breast cancer.

Symptoms of osteoporosis

In general, there are no symptoms of osteoporosis. This is why it is sometimes called a silent disease. However, you should look for the following:

  • Loss of height (decrease of an inch or more)
  • Change of posture (stooping or leaning forward)
  • Piri of respiration (capacity of the small lungs due to compressed discs)
  • Bone fractures
  • Pain in the lower back

Causes of osteoporosis

Your bones are in a constant state of restoration: new bone is formed and old bone is broken. When you are a child, your body makes your bone faster than it breaks an old bone, and your bone mass increases. This process slows down in their early 20s, and most people reach their peak bone mass in their 30s. As people age, bone mass is lost faster than it was created.

How likely you are to develop osteoporosis depends on the amount of bone mass you have achieved as a youth. Peak bone mass is inherited in some way and the species group also varies. At your peak bone mass, you have more bone on the “bank” and are less likely to develop osteoporosis as you age.

Risk factors of osteoporosis

There are many risk factors that increase your chances of developing osteoporosis, two of which are sex and age.

Osteoporosis is a disorder that affects more and more people. However, women over the age of 50 or postmenopausal women are at higher risk of osteoporosis. During the first 10 years after menopause, women experience a rapid loss of bone mass because menopause reduces the production of a hormone called estrogen, which protects against excessive loss of bone mass.

Age and osteoporosis affect men too. You might be surprised that men over the age of 50 are more likely to develop osteoporosis-induced fractures than those with prostate cancer. An estimated 80,000 men a year break their hips and women are more likely to die in the year following a hip fracture.

The risk of developing osteoporosis is also related to race. Caucasian and Asian women are more likely to develop osteoporosis. However, African American and Hispanic women are still at risk. In fact, African American women are more likely than white women to die after a hip fracture.

Another factor is bone structure and body weight. Small and thin people are at higher risk of developing osteoporosis because they lose less bone than people with higher body weight and larger frames. Family history also influences the risk of osteoporosis. If your parents or grandparents have signs of osteoporosis, such as a broken hip after a minor fall, you are at risk for the disease.

Finally, certain medical conditions and medications can increase your risk. If you have any of the following conditions, some of which are related to irregular hormone levels, you and your healthcare provider may want to consider screening for osteoporosis.

  • An overactive thyroid, parathyroid, or adrenal glands.
  • History of bariatric surgery (weight loss) or organ transplantation.
  • History of hormone therapy or missed periods due to breast or prostate cancer.
  • Celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Blood diseases such as multiple myeloma.

Some medications can cause side effects that can damage bones and lead to osteoporosis. These include steroids, breast cancer treatments, and medications to treat seizures. You should talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist about the bone effect of your medication.

Each risk factor may seem related to something beyond your control, but it is not. You have control over some of the risk factors for osteoporosis. You can discuss drug-related problems with your healthcare provider. And you are responsible for:

Eating habits: If your body does not have enough calcium and vitamin D, you are more likely to develop osteoporosis. Although eating disorders such as bulimia or anorexia are risk factors, they can be treated.

Lifestyle: People who lead a sedentary (inactive) lifestyle are at risk of developing osteoporosis.

Tobacco use: Smoking increases the risk of cracking.

Alcohol consumption: having two drinks (or more) a day increases the risk of osteoporosis. 

Treatment for osteoporosis

If your test reveals that you have osteoporosis, your doctor will work with you to create a treatment plan. Your doctor can also prescribe medications and lifestyle changes. These lifestyle changes can increase your intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as get adequate exercise.

There is no cure for osteoporosis, but proper treatment can help protect and strengthen your bones. These treatments can help slow bone breakdown in your body, and some treatments can increase the growth of new bone.

Medications for osteoporosis: The most common medicine used to treat osteoporosis is called bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates are used to prevent bone loss. They can be taken orally or by injection. Among them are:

  • Alendronate (Fosamax)
  • Ibandronate (Boniva)
  • Rhysdronate (octonel)
  • Zoledronic acid (regeneration)
  • Other medications can be used to prevent bone loss or to stimulate bone growth. Among them are:
  • Testosterone
  • In men, testosterone treatment can help increase bone density.

Hormonal therapy: For women, the estrogen used during and after menopause can help reduce bone density. Unfortunately, estrogen therapy also increases the risk of blood clots, heart disease, and some types of cancer.

  • Raloxifene (Evista)
  • Although there is still a risk of blood clots, these drugs have been found to provide the benefits of estrogen without much risk.
  • Denosumab (Prolia)
  • This injection is given by injection and is more promising than bisphosphonates in reducing bone loss.
  • Teriparatide (Forteo)
  • This medicine is also given by injection and stimulates bone growth.
  • Calcitonin Salmon (Fortical and Miocalcin)
  • This medicine is taken as a nasal spray and reduces bone resorption. Talk to your doctor about the risk of cancer with this drug.
  • Romosozumab (evidence)

The drug was approved by the FDA in April 2019 to treat women experiencing menopause and at risk of fractures.

12 medications are given under the skin in two injections (in one session) once a month for 12 months or less. It has a “black box” warning because it increases the risk of heart attack or stroke, so it is not recommended for people with a history.

Natural remedies for osteoporosis: Since osteoporosis medications can cause side effects, you can try other treatments instead of medications. Many supplements such as red clover, soy, and black cohosh can be used to help promote bone health.

However, before using these supplements, be sure to speak with your doctor or pharmacist. This is for two main reasons. There are very few studies to support the use of these substances in the treatment of osteoporosis. As a result, we have no evidence that they work.

These medications can cause side effects in addition to interacting with the medications you are taking. You need to make sure you know what side effects are occurring and if you are taking medications that can interact with the supplement.

All of them report good results with natural treatments.

Exercises for osteoporosis: What you can do to help keep your bones healthy is not the right thing to do. Exercise is very important, especially exercises with weights.

Weight-bearing exercises involve placing your feet or hands on the floor or another surface. Examples:

  • Climbing stairs
  • Leg presses
  • Squats
  • Lizards
  • Resistance bands
  • Dumbbells
  • Heavy-duty exercise machines

These exercises help because they make your muscles push and pull on your bones. This action tells your body to form new bone tissue, which makes your bones stronger.

This isn’t your only benefit from exercise, however. In addition to its many positive effects on weight and heart health, exercise can also improve your balance and coordination, which can help you avoid falls.

Prevention of osteoporosis

Your bones need good nutrition and regular exercise to stay healthy throughout your life.

Protein: Protein is one of the building blocks of bones. However, there is conflicting evidence on the effect of protein intake on bone density. Most people eat a lot of protein in their diet, but some don’t. Vegetarians and vegans can deliberately get enough protein in their diet if they want adequate sources such as soy, nuts, legumes, seeds for vegetarians and vegans, and dairy and eggs for vegetarians.

Older people can eat less protein for a number of reasons. If you think you are not getting enough protein, ask your doctor if supplementation is an option.

Bodyweight: Being underweight increases your risk of bone loss and fractures. Being overweight now increases your risk of arm and wrist fractures. Therefore, maintaining appropriate body weight is good for your bones, as well as your overall health.

Calcium: Women between the ages of 18 and 50 need 1,000 milligrams of calcium per day. This daily increase to 1,200 milligrams when women turn 50 and men turn 70.

  • Good sources of calcium
  • Low-fat dairy products
  • Dark green leafy vegetables
  • Canned salmon or sardines with bones
  • Soy products like tofu
  • Calcium-fortified whole grains and orange juice

If you find it difficult to get enough calcium from your diet, consider taking calcium supplements. However, too much calcium is associated with kidney stones. Although it is not yet clear, some experts suggest that calcium may increase the risk of heart disease, especially in supplements.

The Department of Health and Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (formerly Institute of Medicine) recommends that total calcium intake, including supplements and diet, should not exceed 2,000 milligrams per day for those over 50 years.

Vitamin D: Vitamin D improves your body’s ability to absorb calcium and improves bone health in other ways. People can get some of their vitamin D from sunlight, but it is not a good source if you live in high latitude, are at home, or use sunscreen regularly, or avoid the sun due to the risk of skin cancer.

To get enough vitamin D to maintain bone health, it is recommended that adults ages 51 to 70 take 600 international units (IU) and 800 IU after age 70 through diet or supplements. Those who have no other sources of vitamin D and especially those with limited sunlight need supplementation. Most multivitamin products contain 600 to 800 IU of vitamin D. Up to 4,000 IU of vitamin D per day is safe for most people.

Exercise: Exercise can help you build strong bones and slow them down. Exercise can benefit your bones when you start out, but there are many benefits to you if you start exercising regularly as a child and continue to exercise throughout your life.

Combine strength training exercises with weight lifting and balance exercises. Strength training can help strengthen the muscles and bones in your arms and upper spine. Weight-bearing exercises (walking, jogging, running, stair climbing, rope skiing, skiing, and impact sports) primarily affect the legs, hips, and backbones.

Balance exercises like tai chi reduce the risk of falls, especially as you age. Swimming, cycling, and exercising on machines like ellipticals provide good cardiovascular exercise, but they do not improve bone health.


Symptoms and Causes of Swollen Eyelid | Ophthalmology

What is a swollen eyelid?

A swollen eyelid is more than just a cosmetic irritation. This can be scary, especially if the swelling is severe and can interfere with a person’s ability to see. Inflammation of the eyelids from infection arises from infection of the eyelid, which is triggered by an infected wound, chalazion, or conjunctivitis.

Inflammation of the eyelids can also be caused by an infection that spreads to the eye area from elsewhere, such as the sinus or sinus cavities. Infection of the eye and surrounding tissues is very serious and requires antibiotics to kill bacteria and protect the eye. Eyelid swelling and general swelling (edema) can be a sign of a serious condition, you should speak to your healthcare provider about your symptoms.

Fever, vision problems (such as blurred vision), abnormal eye movements (or loss of mobility), bulging of the eye (swelling), or signs of anaphylactic shock (swollen tongue and throat, skin rash, and trouble breathing). Most causes of puffy eyelids are harmless, but minor problems can be very serious. So if a person has swollen eyelids, it is recommended that an optometrist or ophthalmologist take care of them.

Symptoms of a swollen eyelid

Inflammation of the eyelids is a symptom of an underlying cause, such as an allergy or infection. Puffy eyes usually have one or more of the following:

  • A swollen eyelid can be a symptom of an allergy or a sign of a serious eye infection
  • Eye irritation, itching, or scratching
  • Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
  • Excessive tear production, resulting in watery eyes
  • Impaired vision (depending on the degree of inflammation)
  • Eyelid redness
  • Red-eye inflammation and conjunctivitis
  • Eye discharge
  • Dry or scaly eyelids
  • Pain, especially when the swollen eyelids are caused by an infection

Here are some common symptoms of puffy eyelids:

  • Itchy eyes: Your swollen eyelids can be the result of allergies. Most often, itchy eyes are caused by certain types of allergies. An irritating substance, such as pollen, dust, and animal dander, releases compounds called histamines into the tissues around the eyes, causing itching, redness, and swelling.
  • Sensitivity to light: Your eyelids may swell in response to photophobia or sensitivity to light, which is intolerance of light. Sources such as sunlight, fluorescent light, and incandescent light can cause discomfort, requiring you to disperse or close your eyes. The headache can also be accompanied by sensitivity to light.
  • Tears in the eyes: The swelling of the eyes causes swelling of the eyelids. The chronic irritation of dry eye syndrome is caused by the excessive production of tear water, which is produced by the glands behind the upper eyelid (lacrimal glands).
  • Red eyes: Your swollen eyelids may be due to redness in your eyes. Red or bloody eyes are very common and have many causes. Red eyes are often a symptom of other eye conditions, ranging from benign to severe.
  • Eye discharge: Eye discharge or “sleepy” eyes can cause eyelid inflammation. Eye discharge is a combination of mucus, oil, skin cells, and other debris that collects in the corner of your eye when you sleep. It can be wet and sticky or dry and crusty depending on how much liquid in the discharge has evaporated.
  • Dry eyes: Dry eye syndrome can cause many problems, including swollen eyelids. Dry eye syndrome is caused by a lack of adequate lubrication and moisture on the surface of the eye. The consequences of dry eyes range from subtle but persistent eye irritation to significant inflammation and scarring of the front surface of the eye.
  • Eye pain: Eye pain is often accompanied by blurred vision, redness (bloodshot eyes), sensitivity to light, and swelling of the eyelids. Eye pain is a general phrase to describe discomfort around, behind, behind, or around the eye.

Causes of a swollen eyelid

Swollen eyelids are common. Causes range from fluid retention to severe infection. In most cases, the swelling goes away within 24 hours. You can reduce the inflammation with compresses, but how you treat swollen eyelids also depends on the cause.

Puffy eyelids are often a symptom of another medical condition, including:

  • Allergies
  • Inflamed eyelids (blepharitis)
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Herpes
  • Ovarian gland (chalazion) on your eyelid
  • Eyelid infection)
  • Infection around the eye socket (orbital cellulitis)
  • Thyroid conditions like Graves’ disease

Some medical conditions can also cause symptoms of eye or eyelid inflammation. Although rare, it includes Graves disease and eye cancer. To prevent complications, see an eye doctor if the swelling lasts longer than 24 to 48 hours.

Treatment for swollen eyelids

If your eyelids are sore or soft to the touch, the cause is an infection, cyst, or blemish. It is important to identify the cause of your swollen eyelid, as treatment options depend on the cause.

Cyst: If your upper or lower eyelid is inflamed, it may be due to a cyst or chalazion. A chalazion usually swells in the middle of the eyelid. These cysts can take a few weeks to disappear, and some can turn into a hard lump.

For relief, place a warm damp cloth over your eye. The heat helps secrete oil and clog. You can do this four to six times a day. If the cyst is delayed, see your doctor. They will help you drain it.

Stye: A sting is caused by a small infection at the base of the eyelid near the hair. It can be internal or external, but it often appears as a well-defined red bump. Once the pus from the stay is released, your eye usually heals.

You can use a warm compress to soothe and promote healing. It usually takes a few weeks to go away. Avoid wearing makeup only when you have a style, as it can cause reinfection.

Pink eye: Conjunctivitis is caused by a bacterial, viral, or allergic infection that causes inflammation on the surface of the eye. It can start in one eye and spread to both. Pus or a sticky coating often appears on the hair and in the corners of the eyes.

You can clean sticky and crusty eyelids with warm water and cotton. The eye improves without treatment. At this point, avoid touching your eyes and keep the pillowcases clean. You may also want to stop wearing cosmetics and contact lenses.

What to do if it is an infection

An infection on the skin is called cellulitis. The skin around the eyes may become red and painful. You will need antibiotics to relieve this inflammation. Cellulite usually affects the legs, but it can occur anywhere.

Symptoms that indicate the need for emergency treatment:

  • Maximum temperature
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Shake
  • Confusion
  • Vision changes or double vision
  • The eye could not move

For mild eyelid swelling, here are some remedies you can try at home:

  • Wash and rinse the skin around your eyelids (baby shampoo mixed with water works well, or you can purchase eyelid ‘scrub’ pads); gently pat dry.
  • Use sterile saline or artificial tears to rinse your eyes.
  • Apply cool compresses, including cold (caffeinated) teabags. Caffeine constricts the tiny blood vessels in your eyes and eyelids, which helps reduce fluid leakage and puffy eyelids (edema).
  • Rest and sleep with your head elevated. This will help drain fluids away from your eyelids and surrounding tissues.
  • Do not wear contact lenses until your eyelid swelling goes away. It’s possible to have an allergy to the contact lens material, so consider that possibility if swelling resolves when you are not wearing the lenses.
  • For styles and chalazia, use hot compresses for 5 to 10 minutes a few times a day, along with medicine your doctor prescribes for infection or inflammation.

Prevention of the Swollen eyelid

Prevention of eyelid inflammation depends on the cause.

Allergies: Common Cause of Swollen Eyelids-Allergies-Allergy Medications Taking the medication on a daily basis can help prevent symptoms. Do not rub your eyes; Inflammation increases. If eyelid swelling occurs frequently, check with an allergy test to determine which allergy you have. Once you identify the exact allergens, you can avoid them. Use hypoallergenic cosmetic and facial products. If you occasionally use eye drops for redness and your eyes and lids become irritated, use preservative-free eye drops as the preservative can irritate the eyes. You can buy single-use artificial tears. Also, some people are allergic to contact lens material, especially silicone lenses. Talk to your optometrist if you think your contacts are guilty.

Causes of Infections: Cleaning your eyelids twice a day with a mild cleanser (try mixing baby shampoo with water) can help prevent infection and inflammation of the eyelids. If you wear eye makeup, do not share it with anyone. Treating eyelid conditions with home remedies and any medications prescribed by your doctor can help reduce eyelid inflammation.

Fluid retention: For causes related to edema, you can prevent eyelid swelling by drinking plenty of water and following a low-salt diet as prescribed by your doctor. Drinking alcohol increases edema, so cutting back can help prevent swelling. Inflammation can be controlled by treating an underlying condition, such as kidney disease. Sleeping with your head elevated removes excess fluid from the delicate eye tissue, reducing the appearance of puffy eyes upon waking.


Thyroid Removal Surgery (Thyroidectomy) Overview | Endocrinology

What is thyroidectomy?

A thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure to remove all or part of the thyroid gland and is used to treat diseases of the thyroid gland including:

  • Thyroid cancer
  • Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland)
  • Large goiters or thyroid nodules causing symptomatic obstruction such as difficulty swallowing or breathing.
  • Multinodular goiter

Thyroidectomy is traditionally a minimally invasive surgery that is performed through a small horizontal incision in the front of the neck. The entire thyroid gland may be removed or just a lobe, part of a lobe, and the isthmus or other structures. Depending on the extent of the operation, patients may need to take levothyroxine, an oral synthetic thyroid hormone.

Thyroidectomy without mutilation

For a select group of patients who are concerned about the possible cosmetic effects of a neck scar, we offer “scarless” thyroidectomy, a technique of removing the thyroid using small oral incisions that removes the scar from the neck. In this procedure, the surgeon accesses the thyroid gland through the patient’s mouth, known as the “transoral” approach. UCSF endocrine surgery is amongst the first programs in the world to pioneer this technique.

A new hybrid procedure using a transoral and submental technique (TOaST) offers patients an additional option, a refinement that combines the transoral approach with a small incision easily hidden just below the chin, offering the following benefits:

  • The decrease in postoperative complications and patient discomfort.
  • The ability to accommodate larger thyroid samples
  • Maintain practically all the cosmetic benefits of traditional surgery without scars.

Types of thyroid surgery

There are several different types of thyroid surgery. The most communal are lobectomy, subtotal thyroidectomy, and total thyroidectomy.

  • Lobectomy: Sometimes a nodule, inflammation, or swelling affects only half of the thyroid gland. When this occurs, a doctor will remove only one of the two lobes. The part left behind must retain part or all of its function.
  • Subtotal thyroidectomy: A subtotal thyroidectomy eliminates the thyroid gland but leaves a small amount of thyroid tissue. This preserves some of the thyroid function. Many people who have this type of surgery develop hypothyroidism, a condition that occurs when the thyroid does not produce enough hormones. This is treated with daily hormonal supplements.
  • Total thyroidectomy: A total thyroidectomy removes all of the thyroid and thyroid tissue. This surgery is suitable when nodules, swelling, or irritation affect the entire thyroid gland or when cancer is present.

Risks of thyroidectomy

Thyroidectomy is generally a safe surgical procedure. However, some people have major or minor complications. Possible complications include:

  • Hemorrhage (bleeding) under the neck wound: If this occurs, the wound protrudes and the neck swells, possibly compressing the internal structures of the neck and interfering with breathing. This is an emergency.
  • Thyroid storm: If thyroidectomy is performed to treat a very overactive gland, there may be an increase in thyroid hormones in the blood. This is a very rare complication because medicines are given before surgery to avoid this problem.
  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury: Because this nerve innervates the vocal cords, the injury can cause vocal cord paralysis and produce a hoarse voice, either in the short or long term.
  • Injury to a part of the superior laryngeal nerve: If this occurs, the singing patients may not be able to reach high notes and the voice may lose some projection.
  • Infection in the wound
  • Hypoparathyroidism: If the parathyroid glands cannot be protected or are damaged through surgery, the person may not be able to make enough parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid hormone helps keep blood calcium levels within the normal range. Low production of parathyroid hormone causes low levels of calcium in the blood.

Why is it for

Your doctor may indorse a thyroidectomy if you have conditions such as:

  • Thyroid cancer: Cancer is the most common cause of thyroidectomy. If you have thyroid cancer, removing most, if not all, of your thyroid is likely a treatment option.
  • Non-cancerous enlargement of the thyroid (goiter): Removal of all or part of the thyroid gland is an option if you have a large goiter that is uncomfortable or causes difficulty in breathing or swallowing, or in some belongings if the goiter is causing hyperthyroidism.
  • Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism): Hyperthyroidism is a disorder in which the thyroid gland produces too greatly thyroxine hormone. If you have problems with antithyroid medications and do not want radioactive iodine therapy, thyroidectomy may be an option.
  • Suspicious or indeterminate thyroid nodules: Some thyroid nodules cannot be identified as cancerous or non-cancerous after testing a sample from a needle biopsy. Doctors may recommend that people with these nodules have a thyroidectomy if the nodules are at increased risk of being cancerous.


Most people with thyroid cancer have no known risk factors, so most cases of this disease cannot be prevented.

Exposure to radiation, especially in childhood, is a known risk factor for thyroid cancer. Because of this, doctors no longer use radiation to treat less serious illnesses. Imaging tests, such as X-rays and CT scans, also expose children to radiation, but in much lower doses, so it is not clear how much they might increase the risk of thyroid cancer (or other cancers). If there is an increased risk, it is probably small, but to be safe, children should not have these tests unless absolutely necessary. When needed, they should be performed using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear image.

Genetic testing can be done to look for gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most familial cases of TCM can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is exposed in a family, the rest of the family associates can be tested for the mutated gene.

If you have a family history of TCM, it is important that you see a doctor who is familiar with the latest advances in genetic counselling and genetic testing for this disease. Removing the thyroid gland in children who carry the abnormal gene will likely prevent cancer that could otherwise be fatal.

Thyroidectomy complications

  • Hypocalcemia (3-5%): Most communal cause of airway obstruction after 24 hours
  • Hematoma (1-2%): Most communal cause of airway obstruction within 24 hours
  • Recurrent injury of the laryngeal nerve (0.77%): Usually causes unilateral damage, stridor, hoarseness
  • Wound infection (0.2-0.5%)

Types and Causes of Lagophthalmos | Ophthalmology

What is lagophthalmos?

Lagophthalmos mentions the inability to fully close the eyelids. The space between the upper and lower lids exposes the ocular surface, causing dryness problems that can be aggravated and threaten the integrity of the eye and the quality of vision.

Symptoms of lagophthalmos

The main symptom of lagophthalmos is not being able to close your eyes. If you have nocturnal lagophthalmos, you may not even know it. The expression for these additional symptoms in one or both eyes if you reason you have lagophthalmos:

  • Increased tears
  • Foreign body sensation, which is the sensation of something rubbing against the eye
  • Pain or irritation, especially in the morning.

Types lagophthalmos

Nocturnal lagophthalmos is the incapability to close the eyelids during sleep. It can reduce the quality of sleep because symptoms related to the exposure or, if severe, cause damage to the cornea (exposure keratopathy). The degree of lagophthalmos can be minor (dark lagophthalmos) or quite obvious.

It is often caused by an abnormality of the eyelid that prevents complete closure. Treatment may include surgery to correct poor eyelid position. Point plugs can be used to increase the amount of lubrication on the surface of the eyeball by blocking some of the tear drainage ducts. Eye drops can also be used to provide additional lubrication or to stimulate the eyes to increase tear production.

The condition is not widely understood; in one case, a passenger was removed from a US Airways flight because of it.

Causes of lagophthalmos

Lagophthalmos is caused by the following three main causes:

  • Orbicularis muscle function failure of the eyelids. This is the most common cause. It may be paralytic, due to the fact that the facial intracranial nerve affects the orbicularis oculi muscle, or spastic, as seen in thyrotoxicosis.
  • The excessive bulge of the globe in the orbit. Lagophthalmos can accompany proptosis or buphthalmos (enlarged cornea due to elevated intraocular pressure in young children), even though the eyelids are normal, not covering the eye with proptosis.
  • The inadequate vertical dimension of the upper or lower eyelid. It can be structural when the retraction or shortening of the eyelids is due to scarring or atrophy after injury (eg burns) or illness. Babies with a collodion membrane may have temporary lagophthalmos due to the restrictive effect of the membrane on the eyelids.
  • During sleep, some degree of physiological lagophthalmos can normally occur. Functional lagophthalmos in an unconscious patient can be very troublesome.

Treatments of lagophthalmos

In treating lagophthalmos, the main goal is to prevent exposure to keratitis (inflammation of the cornea), as well as to try to restore eyelid function.

The first treatment plan is usually to keep the eyes hydrated. Blinking usually prevents dryness by dispersion the tear film and meibomian gland secretion over the surface of the conjunctiva and cornea. As patients with lagophthalmos cannot blink normally, an ophthalmic ointment or lubricating eye drops are usually applied both day and night. In extreme cases, taping the lid closed and using a humid chamber to prevent the surface of the eyeball from drying out could remedy extreme dryness. If the condition is acute, botulinum toxin injections into the levator eyelid may allow for better occlusion of the eye.

Permanent treatments will often target the paralyzed facial nerve. For example, facial nerve repair or facial nerve crossover graft can restore the function of the eyelid muscles and also help restore facial symmetry. These procedures are generally not used in older patients.

If conventional surgical procedures do not improve the condition, a second option is a procedure known as tarsorrhaphy. This includes sewing the lids together partially, to narrow the lid opening. Other similar techniques, such as eyelid loading, involve placing a small weight on the upper eyelid, thus increasing the downward pull on it, so that this will gradually cause the eye to close when forced to close. The weight is light enough to experience a gravitational pull and is often made of gold.

In summary, It is most often caused by facial nerve palsy and often has a good recovery rate if treated right away. Understanding the cause is essential in determining which treatment strategy will offer the best success rate. Treatment of the underlying condition should improve facial nerve function and cosmetic appearance, although unfortunately, there are some conditions where this can be difficult.

Diagnosis of lagophthalmos

The diagnosis of lagophthalmos is mainly clinical.

  • A slit-lamp examination by an ophthalmologist may show interpalpebral punctate epithelial keratopathy, which is a diagnosis of this disease or incomplete blinking. The distribution of punctate epithelial keratopathy depends on the position of the cornea during sleep in patients with nocturnal lagophthalmos.
  • The external examination for complete eyelid closure should be performed with the patient gently closing the eyes.
  • Acute dysfunction of the seventh intracranial nerve, due to Bell’s palsy, trauma, or iatrogenic injury, can cause this disease. In cases of understated weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle, manual distraction of the eyelids throughout forced closure can expose a weakness that can cause nocturnal lagophthalmos or incomplete blinking.
  • It is important to check corneal sensitivity to rule out any component of fifth intracranial nerve dysfunction.
  • The vertical dimension of the upper and lower eyelid skin should be evaluated in patients with alleged lagophthalmos. In the lower lids, vertical thinning is usually apparent and manifests as a “sclera show” and eyelid retraction. However, in the upper eyelids, the lid margin often rests at a normal height, and only with the downward distraction of the eyelid does vertical shortening of the skin become apparent.
  • In all patients suspected of this disease, the function of the superior levator palpebral muscle should be measured (during the eyelid excursion from top to bottom). Patients with inadequate mobility of the upper eyelid retractors may have this disease notwithstanding a normal amount of vertical skin.
  • The symblepharon between the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva in the superior cul-de-sac can also limit the downward excursion of the upper eyelid, thus causing this disease.
  • The balloon bulge increases the amount of eyelid excursion required to completely cover the cornea during eye closure. It associated with proptosis can cause exposure to keratopathy.
  • Nocturnal lagophthalmos causes a foreign body sensation and watery eyes upon waking.
  • Comatose patients usually present with this disease due to the inadequate tone of the seventh central intracranial nerve.

Complications of lagophthalmos

  • Untreated lagophthalmos leaves your eyes vulnerable to scratches and other injuries because they are not protected by your eyelids.
  • Continuous eye exposure can also lead to exposure keratopathy, which has the same symptoms as lagophthalmos. Exposure keratopathy can eventually cause the cornea, the clear front part of the eye, to swell or become thin. It can also lead to a corneal ulcer.
  • Surgery to treat this disease can also have complications. Tarsorrhaphy can leave permanent scars, while gold-weight implants can begin to move away from their original location. Be sure to follow your doctor’s post-surgery instructions to avoid additional problems.

How can it be prevented?

In general, It cannot be prevented, unless it is the result of retraction of the eyelid after blepharoplasty surgery through the skin or other surgical scars. In principle, it is important to detect it, to establish if it represents any risk to vision or the eye and to take the necessary measures for its treatment.

Is lagophthalmos common?

Nocturnal lagophthalmos (partial opening of the eyes during sleep) is an anatomical irregular in the usual human population; in fact, it occurs in 23% of the population.

Can lagophthalmos be cured?

Work with your physician to figure out the underlying cause. Contingent on the cause, you can treat this disease with also surgery or products to help keep your eyes moisturized and protected.


Bartter Syndrome | Causes and Treatment Options | Endocrinology

What is bartter syndrome?

Bartter syndrome is an over-all term for a group of rare genetic disorders in which there are specific flaws in kidney function. These defects damage the kidney’s ability to reabsorb salt and cause imbalances in the various electrolytes and fluid attentions in the body. The electrolytes affected are primarily mineral salts such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride.

The symptoms and severity of Bartter syndrome vary from one individual to another and can range from mild to severe. The age of onset of overt symptoms can variety from before birth to adulthood. Bartter syndrome is caused by alterations (changes) in one of several different genes. Treatment is aimed at correcting the electrolyte imbalances through the use of supplements and certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) and diuretics.

Causes of bartter syndrome

Bartter syndrome can be caused by mutations in any of several genes; the genetic cause in each case corresponds to the type of Bartter syndrome that each affected individual has. Type I is due to mutations in the SLC12A1 gene. Type II is caused by mutations in the KCNJ1 genetic factor. Type III results from mutations in the CLCNKB genetic factor.

Type IV can be caused by mutations in the BSND gene or by a combination of mutations in the CLCNKA and CLCNKB genes. The last variant, type V, has associated mutations in the CASR gene. In some people with Bartter syndrome, the genetic cause of the disorder is unknown; There may be other genes that cause the condition that has not yet been identified.

All of these genes are essential for normal kidney function – they are involved in the kidneys’ ability to reabsorb salt. Abnormal variations in these genes affect these abilities, allowing the loss of excess salt through the urine and also affecting the reabsorption of other things, such as potassium and calcium. The resulting imbalance of these in the body leads to the signs and symptoms of Bartter syndrome.

Symptoms of bartter syndrome

This disease usually occurs in childhood. Symptoms include:

  • Constipation
  • The rate of weight gain is much lower than that of other children of similar age and sex (stunting)
  • Need to urinate more repeatedly than usual (urinary frequency)
  • Low blood pressure
  • Kidney stones
  • Muscle cramps and weakness

Diagnosis of bartter syndrome

  • Electrolyte levels in serum and urine
  • Exclusion of similar disorders

Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome should be supposed in children with characteristic symptoms or related laboratory abnormalities, such as metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia. Measurement of urinary electrolytes shows elevated levels of sodium, potassium, and chloride that are inappropriate for the euvolemic or hypovolemic state of the patient. Diagnosis is made by excluding other disorders:

  • Primary and secondary aldosteronism can often be distinguished by the presence of hypertension and normal or low plasma renin levels (see Differential Diagnosis of Aldosteronism).
  • Surreptitious vomiting or laxative exploitation can often be distinguished by low levels of urinary chloride (usually <20 mmol / L).
  • Surreptitious diuretic abuse can often be distinguished by low urinary chloride levels and a urine diuretic test.

A 24-hour measurement of urine calcium or urine calcium/creatinine ratio can help distinguish the two syndromes; levels are typically normal too high in Bartter syndrome and low in Gitelman syndrome.


Complete Metabolic Panel (CMP) icon

Definitive diagnosis, including identification of disease subtypes, is made using genetic tests, which are now increasingly available.

Treatment of bartter syndrome

It is treated by eating foods rich in potassium or taking potassium supplements.

Many people also need salt and magnesium supplements. Medications that block the kidney’s ability to remove potassium may be needed. High doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can also be used.

Alternative names

  • Potassium wasting
  • Salt-wasting nephropathy


The risk factors for this disease remain unknown because the disease has its origin in genetic mutations of unknown causes.


There are no known prevention methodologies for this disease because the disease results from mutations of the genes.


Behcet’s Disease | Treatments and Risk Factors | Ophthalmology

What is Behcet’s disease?

Behcet’s Disease, also known as Silk Road disease, is a chronic (long-term) inflammatory condition, caused by vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels), which will affect and damage both arteries and veins.

Symptoms of Behcet’s disease

The main symptoms of Behçet’s disease include:

  • Genital and mouth ulcers
  • Red, painful eyes and blurred vision
  • Acne-like spots
  • Headaches
  • Painful, stiff, and swollen joints

In severe cases, there is also the risk of serious and life-threatening problems, such as permanent vision loss and strokes. Most people with the condition experience episodes in which symptoms are severe (flare-ups or relapses), followed by periods in which symptoms disappear (remission). Over time, some of the symptoms may subside and become less bothersome, although they may never fully resolve.

Causes of Behcet’s disease

The cause of Behçet syndrome is unknown. The disease is comparatively rare, but it is more common and severe in patients from the eastern Mediterranean and Asia than in those of European descent. Both hereditary (genetic) and environmental factors, such as microbial contagions, are suspected to be contributing factors to the development of Behçet’s disease. Behçet’s disease is not known to be contagious.

Treatment of Behcet’s disease

Treatment for Behcet’s disease hinges on the harshness of your condition. Mild cases can be treated with anti-inflammatory medications, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin). You may only need medicine when you are having an outbreak. You may not need to take any medications when the disease is in remission.

Topical ointments that contain corticosteroids may be helpful in treating skin sores. Corticosteroid mouthwashes can help reduce the pain of mouth sores and help them go away more quickly. Similarly, corticosteroid eye drops or other anti-inflammatory medications can ease your discomfort if your eyes are affected.

In severe cases, a strong anti-inflammatory drug called colchicine (Colcrys) is sometimes prescribed. Colchicine is generally prescribed to treat gout. It can be particularly helpful in relieving joint pain associated with Behcet’s disease. Colchicine and other strong anti-inflammatory medications may be needed between flare-ups to help limit the damage caused by symptoms.

Other medications that may be prescribed between flare-ups include immunosuppressant medications, which help prevent your immune system from attacking healthy tissue. Some examples of immunosuppressive medications include:

  • Azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran)
  • Cyclosporine (Sandimmune)
  • Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Near)

Diagnosis of Behcet’s disease

There is no exact test to diagnose Behcet’s disease. Rather, the diagnosis is based on the appearance of symptoms and signs consistent with the disease. The presence of certain features that are particularly characteristic (eg, oral or genital ulcerations), elimination of other possible causes of the patient’s symptoms, and, if possible, testing for vasculitis by biopsy of an affected organ, all would support Behcet’s diagnosis.

A positive pathergy test can support the diagnosis of Behcet, but it is not a diagnosis of the disease in itself. A pathergy test is a humble test in which the preparation is pricked with a small, sterile needle. A small red bump or pustule at the needle insertion site is a positive test. Note that although a positive pathergy test helps diagnose Behcet, only a minority of Behcet’s patients demonstrate the phenomenon of pathergy (i.e., they have positive tests). Patients in the Mediterranean region are more likely to demonstrate pathergy. Also, other circumstances can infrequently result in positive pathergy tests, so the test is not 100% specific.

Risk factors for Behcet’s disease

Factors that can increase your risk of getting Behcet to include:

  • Years: Behcet’s disease commonly affects men and women in their 20s and 30s, although children and older adults can develop the condition as well.
  • Where you live: People from countries in the Middle East and East Asia, including Turkey, Iran, Japan, and China, are more likely to develop Behcet.
  • Gender: Although Behcet’s disease occurs in both men and women, the disease is usually more severe in men.
  • Genes: Having certain genes is associated with an increased risk of developing Behcet.

Complications of Behcet’s disease

The complications of this disease depend on your signs and symptoms. For example, untreated uveitis can lead to decreased vision or blindness. People with eye signs and symptoms of Behcet’s disease should see an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) frequently because treatment can assistance prevent this complication.

Expected duration

It can be a chronic (long-lasting) condition. Symptoms sometimes decrease over time and disappear over several years.


There is no way to prevent Behcet’s disease.


Albinism | Causes and Symptoms | Ophthalmology

What is albinism?

Albinism is a rare collection of genetic disorders that cause the skin, hair, or eyes to have little or no colour. Albinism is also associated with vision problems. According to the National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation, approximately 1 in 18,000 to 20,000 people in the United States has a form of albinism.

Types of albinism

Different genetic defects characterize the numerous types of albinism. The types of albinism include:

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA)

OCA affects the skin, hair, and eyes. There are several subtypes of OCA:


OCA1 is due to a flaw in the tyrosinase enzyme. There are two subtypes of OCA1:

  • OCA1a: Individuals with OCA1a have a whole absence of melanin. This is the pigment that gives colour to the skin, eyes, and hair. People with this subtype have snowy hair, very light skin, and light eyes.
  • OCA1b: People with OCA1b make some melanin. They have light-coloured skin, hair, and eyes. Their colouration may increase as they age.


OCA2 is less severe than OCA1. It is due to a defect in the OCA2 gene that results in reduced melanin production. People with OCA2 are born with fair skin and colour. Their hair can be yellow, blonde, or light brown. OCA2 is more common in people of African descent and Native Americans.


OCA3 is a defect in the TYRP1 gene. It usually affects dark-skinned people, particularly black South Africans. Persons with OCA3 consume reddish-brown skin, reddish hair, and hazel or brown eyes.


OCA4 is due to a flaw in the SLC45A2 protein. It produces minimal melanin production and usually occurs in people of East Asian descent. People with OCA4 have symptoms similar to those of people with OCA2.

Ocular albinism

Ocular albinism is the result of a genetic mutation on the X chromosome and occurs almost exclusively in men. This type of albinism only affects the eyes. People with this type have normal hair, skin, and eye colour, but no colour in the retina (the back of the eye).

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome

This syndrome is a rare form of albinism that is due to a defect in one of the eight genes. It produces symptoms similar to those of OCA. The syndrome occurs with lung, intestinal, and bleeding disorders.

Chediak-Higashi syndrome

Chediak-Higashi syndrome is an additional rare form of albinism that is the consequence of a defect in the LYST gene. It crops symptoms similar to OCA, but may not touch all areas of the skin. Hair is usually brown or blonde with a silver sheen. The skin is usually creamy white to greyish in colour. People with this syndrome have a defect in white blood cells, which increases the risk of infections.

Griscelli syndrome

Griscelli syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder. It is due to a defect in one of the three genes. There have only been 60 known cases of this syndrome worldwide since 1978. It occurs with albinism (but may not affect the whole body), immune problems, and neurological problems. Griscelli syndrome usually causes death within the first decade of life.

Causes of albinism

Albinism is inherited. It’s not contagious – you can’t “catch” it from someone else. People are born with albinism because they receive an albinism gene or genes from their parents. In the most shared forms of oculocutaneous albinism, both parents must carry the albinism gene for a youngster to be born with the condition. Even if both parents transmit the gene, the chance of each of their children being born with albinism is one in four.

If just one parent has the gene and the other parent has a standard pigment gene, their broods won’t have oculocutaneous albinism. But each child will have a one in two accidental of being a “carrier” of an albinism gene. If a child who carries the gene grows up to have a baby with someone who also does, there’s a one in four accidental that their baby may have albinism. Since most people who carry an albinism gene don’t show any signs of the disorder, a baby with this disease can be born to parents whose complexion is typical for people of their ethnic group.

The most common form of ocular albinism touches only males who have inherited an albinism gene from their mothers. Some ladies can have a milder form of the illness if they have inherited this gene.

Symptoms of albinism

The main symptoms of albinism can affect skin, hair, eye colour, and vision.


The clearest sign is a lighter skin tone, but skin tone does not continually differ substantially. In some people, melanin levels rise slowly over time, darkening the skin tone as the personages. Skin is likely to burn easily in the sun. He does not usually tan.

After sun exposure, some people with this disease can develop:

  • Freckles
  • Moles, usually pink in colour due to the reduced amount of pigment
  • Lentigines, large freckle-like spots

There is also an increased risk of skin cancer. People should use sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 30 or higher and report any new moles or other skin changes to a doctor.


This can vary in colour from white to brown. Those of African or Asian ancestry tend to have yellow, brown, or reddish hair. As the separate ages, their hair colour may slowly darken.

Eye colour

This can also change with age and ranges from very light blue to brown. Low levels of melanin in the iris mean that the eyes may appear slightly translucent and, in some light, appear red or pink as the light reflects off the retina at the back of the eye. The lack of pigment prevents the iris from completely blocking sunlight. This results in sensitivity to light, known as photosensitivity.


It always affects vision. Changes in eye function can include:

  • Nystagmus: The eyes move rapidly and uncontrollably back and forth.
  • Strabismus: The eyes do not work in unison.
  • Amblyopia: Also known as “lazy eye”.
  • Nearsighted or farsighted: The person may be extremely nearsighted or farsighted.
  • Photophobia: The eyes are particularly sensitive to light.
  • Optic Nerve Hypoplasia: Visual impairment can result from an underdeveloped optic nerve.
  • Incorrect routing of the optic nerve: Nerve signals from the retina to the brain follow unusual nerve paths.
  • Astigmatism: An abnormal inflexibility of the front surface of the eye or lens causes blurred vision.

Strategies that can help include:

  • Placement of special telescopic lenses attached to glasses.
  • Using a large computer screen or high contrast media
  • Install software that converts text to speech
  • Using a brightly coloured ball when playing

Vision problems connected to albinism tend to be inferior in newborns but improve rapidly during the first 6 months of life. However, eye health problems are likely to persist.

Diagnosis of albinism

This is usually obvious from the appearance of a baby when it is born. Your baby’s hair, skin, and eyes may be examined for signs of a lack of pigment. Since it can cause several eye problems, your baby may be referred to an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) for testing. Electrodiagnostic tests are also sometimes used to help diagnose albinism. This is where tiny electrodes are attached to the scalp to test the eye’s connections to the part of the brain that controls vision.

Treatment of albinism

  • It is not curable: The emphasis of treatment is to achieve your symptoms or related conditions.
  • Surgery or glasses: They can correct strabismus or crossed eyes, which often accompany albinism. This is when your eyes are not aligned or pointed in different directions.
  • Low vision aids: Small telescopes that attach to glasses can help you see far away objects better. Microscopes or magnifying glasses do the same with closer things. Tinted glasses or contact lenses can ease your sensitivity to light.

Complications of albinism

This can contain skin and eye complications, as well as social and emotional challenges.

  • Eye complications
  • Vision problems can affect learning, employment, and the ability to drive.
  • Skin complications

People with this have skin that is very sensitive to light and sun contact. Sunburns are one of the most serious complications associated with this disease because they can increase the risk of developing skin cancer and skin thickening related to sun damage.

Social and emotional challenges

Some people may experience discrimination. Other people’s reactions to people with this disease can often hurt people with the disease. People may knowledge bullying, teasing, or questions about their appearance, glasses, or visual aids. They usually look very different from members of their own families or ethnic groups, so they may feel like strangers or be treated like strangers. These experiences can contribute to social isolation, low self-esteem, and stress.

It is preferable to use the term “person with albinism” to avoid the stigma of other terms.


If a family member has this, a genetic counsellor can help you understand the type and the chances of having a future child with this disease. She can also explain the tests available to you.

Risk factors

It is an inherited disorder that is present at birth. Children are at risk of existence born if they have parents with parentages who carry the gene for albinism.


Preventive Measures of Corneal Abrasion | Ophthalmology

What is a corneal abrasion?

To know about the corneal abrasion, first get the details regarding the cornea. The cornea is the thin, transparent dome that covers the iris of the eye and the pupil. The iris is the coloured part of your eye and the pupil is the black centre. All the light that enters your eye and allows you to see first touches your cornea.

Dust, metal stains, grains of sand, fingernails, animal claws, or other foreign objects can scratch your cornea. Contact lenses can scratch or irritate the cornea. A small scratch is called a corneal abrasion. Most corneal abrasions are small and heal quickly.

Sometimes the friction of the cornea can cause inflammation in the eye. This is called iritis. Infected corneal abrasions can also lead to corneal ulcers. These are serious conditions that can develop from corneal abrasions.

Facts you should know about a corneal abrasion

A corneal abrasion is a painful scrape or scratch of the surface of the clear part of the eye. This clear tissue of the eye is known as the cornea, the transparent window covering the iris, the circular coloured portion of the eye. The cornea has many nerve endings just under the surface, so that any disruption of the surface may be painful. Seek medical care for sudden vision loss, severe eye pain, or an eye injury. Treatment may incorporate antibiotics, anaesthetic eye drops, and/or an eye patch.

Symptoms of corneal abrasion

Because they affect the way the cornea works, corneal friction can cause vision problems. Your child may complain of burning or perforation in the eye, an inability to see as usual, or blurred vision. If you have scratched your eye before, you will remember how it feels. If not, you can:

  • Feels like sand or grit in my eye
  • You have pain, especially when you open or close your eyes.
  • Note the tearing and redness
  • Become sensitive to light
  • Vision is blurry

Corneal abrasion causes

The eye has other defences in addition to the orbital bone. The lids and eyelashes work to keep foreign cells away from the eyes. When cells enter the cornea, tears help remove them. However, sometimes a foreign object touches the cornea, scratching, cutting, or damaging the surface.

Ingredients that can damage the cornea include dust, sand, wood chips, hay, sparks, insects, pieces of paper, and nails. Corneal damage can also be caused by chemical irritations, improper use of contact lenses, reactions to bright lights, and eye makeup and contact lens solutions.

You can get a scratch if you do:

  • Pierce your eye with a fingernail, a pen, or a makeup brush.
  • Getting dust, sand, sawdust, ash, or other foreign matter in your eyes
  • Put the chemicals in your eye
  • Rub very hard
  • Wear poor or dirty contact lenses
  • Get a specific type of eye infection
  • Performing surgery without proper eye care.
  • Playing sports without safety glasses or doing high-risk physical activities
  • Get over your contact lenses
  • You may not feel symptoms right away. As a result, you may not be able to identify the cause.

Diagnosis of corneal abrasion

Most people know immediately when something misses them. If the eye hurts later, it could be corneal friction. Even a minor injury to the cornea can be very painful.

You can give yourself corneal friction without realizing it. This happens when you try to lift a contact lens, but the lens is not actually in the eye. Rubbing a finger directly on the cornea can cause small scratches.

Your doctor must examine the injured cornea:

  • You develop blurred vision after an eye injury.
  • You have new eye pain that will not resolve in minutes or hours.
  • Even if he can’t find anything, he feels like there is something in his eye.
  • Actually, there is dust, small particles, a crack, etc. in the eye.
  • The eye is very sensitive to bright light.

Treatment of corneal abrasion

If you scratch your eye or get something in your eye, rinse it immediately with clean water or saline. You can remove sand, grit, or other foreign matter from your eye while blinking several times. Do not rub your eye, touch your eyeball, or put other solutions or ingredients in your eye.

If your healthcare provider tells you that you have corneal abrasions, they will look for signs of infection. They will also determine if you need a topical antibiotic in the form of eye drops. If your friction is severe, you can get a prescription for eye drops to relieve pain and sensitivity to light.

You can also get a prescription for pain relievers. In most cases, your cornea will heal quickly, usually within several days. Your eye can be taped shut and you should wear the patch to avoid embarrassing yourself. A small scratch should heal on its own in 1 to 3 days. More severe friction takes longer.

If your eye is healed:

  • Don’t rub your eye.
  • Do not wear contact lenses until your eye doctor says it is safe to do so.
  • Wear sunglasses to reduce discomfort caused by sun exposure.

It should fully recover from a minor scratch without permanent damage to the eye. But deep scratches can cause infections, scars, and other problems. If you don’t take care of them, they can lead to chronic vision problems. Report any unusual symptoms to your ophthalmologist, including recurrence of pain after treatment. In cases of mild irritation, such as a piece of dust flying into your eye, you can wash the foreign object from your eye with clean tap water.

The eye can be cleaned by tilting the head back and pouring water into the open eye. You can fill a sink with water and open your eyes and submerge your head in the water. Laboratories and industrial settings where chemical contaminants are likely to be produced include eyewash stations to clean the eyes if necessary.

Artificial tears or over-the-counter lubricants can improve eye discomfort. Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), can help. If a single dose of these medications does not give you relief, see your eye doctor.

After your eye exam, you should close your eyes and rest to help with the healing process. This means not reading. You should also not drive until your ophthalmologist tells you that it is safe to do so, as driving with a visual impairment can put you and others at risk. Instead, ask someone to guide you to your appointment with an ophthalmologist.

How to prevent corneal abrasions?

To prevent eye injuries, you must adhere to the following preventive measures:

  • Wear goggles when participating in certain sports, such as racquetball.
  • Wear goggles in situations where objects fly into your eyes. This may include wearing glasses or sunglasses while walking to avoid objects blown by the wind, as well as wearing goggles that provide 180-degree protection when using a grinding wheel or hammering metal. For welding, special goggles are available that must be worn at all times.
  • Wear protective goggles to avoid UV radiation when exposed to strong sunlight for a long time. This is especially important when water skiing or on the beach, as reflecting sunlight from snow, water, or clear sand in combination with direct sunlight can double your sun exposure and cause sudden corneal burns.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) – an Overview | Endocrinology

What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia?

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to a group of genetic defects that affect the adrenal glands of walnut-sized organs above the kidneys. The adrenal glands produce important hormones, including:

  • Cortisol, which regulates the body’s response to illness or stress.
  • Mineral corticosteroids such as aldosterone that regulate sodium and potassium levels
  • Androgens like testosterone are male sex hormones
  • In people with CAH, a genetic problem causes a lack of one of the enzymes needed to make these hormones.
  • Even without treatment, with proper treatment, most people with congenital adrenal hyperplasia can lead normal lives.

There are two main types of congenital adrenal hyperplasia:

  • Classic CAH: This form is very rare and is usually found in childhood. Two-thirds of people with classic CAH call it the salt-losing form, while one-third call it the normal virilizing form.
  • Non-classical CAH: This form is mild and common, and may not be apparent until childhood or adolescence.

Types of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Classic CAH

According to the National Adrenal Disease Foundation, classic CAH accounts for 95 per cent of all CAH cases. It occurs mainly in babies and young children. The adrenal glands produce cortisol and aldosterone with the help of an enzyme commonly known as 21-hydroxylase. Classic CAH does not have this enzyme, which means that your adrenal glands cannot make these hormones.

Also, your body begins to produce more male sex hormone called testosterone. It can appear in girls with masculine features and develop early in boys. These characteristics are:

  • Be tall for your age
  • Have a deep tone
  • Early growth of pubic or armpit hair
  • CAH in childhood can make you taller than other children, and as an adult, you may be slightly shorter than average.

Nonclassic or late-onset CAH

Nonclassic or late-onset CAH is a mild type that occurs in older children and adolescents. This type is caused by a partial enzyme deficiency rather than a complete absence of the enzyme. If you have this type of CAH, your adrenal glands can make aldosterone, but not enough cortisol. Testosterone levels are also lower in late-onset CAH.

Rare forms

There are other types of CAH, but they are very rare. These include deficiencies of 11-beta-hydroxylase, 17-alpha-hydroxylase, and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

Symptoms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

The signs and symptoms of CAH vary depending on the defective gene and the level of the enzyme defect.

Classic CAH

Girls with classic CAH may have a condition called dark genitalia, in which the vagina expands or the genitals look like boys. Male babies with classic CAH have normal genitalia. Male and female babies are severely affected by a lack of cortisol, aldosterone, or both. This is called an adrenal crisis and it can be fatal.

The salt-wasting form and classic form of virilization of classic CAH cause children’s bodies to produce enough cortisol. These children have trouble maintaining normal blood pressure, blood sugar, and energy levels and are more prone to stress. Excess male sex hormones lead to shorter stature and early puberty in both boys and girls.

Signs and symptoms of classic CAH in children and adults:

  • The appearance of pubic hair at a very young age.
  • Rapid growth in childhood, but lower than average final height

Non-classical CAH

Non-classical CAH symptoms often do not appear when the baby is born. This condition is not detected in a regular infant blood test and is usually evident in late childhood or early adulthood. Cortisol may be the only hormone deficient.

Adolescent and adult women with nonclassic CAH may have normal genitalia at birth, but later in life, they may experience:

  • Irregular or absent period
  • Male traits such as facial hair, tall body hair, and deep voice
  • Sharp pimples

In both men and women, there may be signs of non-classical CAH:

  • The early appearance of pubic hair
  • Predicts rapid growth in childhood, developed bone age, and short final stature

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia causes

The most common cause of CAH is the lack of an enzyme called 21-hydroxylase. CAH is sometimes called a 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Other very rare enzyme deficiencies cause CAH.

Children with this condition have two parents, who either have CAH or are carriers of the genetic mutation that causes this condition. This is called an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia risk factors

Factors that increase the risk of CAH:

  • Both parents have CAH or both are carriers of the genetic defect of the disorder.
  • Ashkenazi has some ethnic heritage, such as Jewish, but Hispanic, Italian, Yugoslav, and Yupik Inuit

How is congenital adrenal hyperplasia diagnosed?

A prenatal ultrasound can detect CAH before a baby is born. But it is generally congenital or based on symptoms (such as abnormally visible genitalia) or US Newborn screening performed on all newborns is suspected based on the results of blood tests.

A pediatric endocrinologist will usually check that the baby does not have adrenal enzymes and prescribe treatment.

Tests to help diagnose CAH or guide treatment may include:

  • Blood tests to check adrenal hormone levels.
  • Blood Chemistry to Check for High Sodium and Potassium Levels in Children with CAH Salt Loss
  • Karyotype to determine chromosomal sex
  • Imaging tests (such as an ultrasound study) to learn more about genital anatomy
  • X-rays to see how fast the bones are maturing

In infancy or later diagnosis may include:

  • History and physical exam
  • Blood test
  • Genetic testing

Sometimes when a family history of CAH is known, the fetus is diagnosed before birth. The experimental prenatal treatment of CAH is a controversial experiment and experts recommend that it be done only in the context of an approved clinical trial.

Treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Your doctor will refer your child to a doctor who specializes in pediatric hormonal problems (pediatric endocrinologist) for the treatment of CAH. The healthcare team may also include other professionals such as urologists, psychologists, and geneticists. 


The goal of treating congenital adrenal hyperplasia with medication is to reduce the production of excess androgens and replace the defective hormones. People with the classic form of CAH can successfully manage the condition through hormone replacement therapy for the rest of their lives. People with nonclassical CAH may not need treatment or only need a small dose of corticosteroids.

Medications for congenital adrenal hyperplasia are taken daily. During periods of significant stress, such as illness or surgery, additional medications or higher doses may be needed.

Medications can include:

  • Corticosteroids instead of cortisol
  • Mineral corticosteroids replace aldosterone to retain salt and remove excess potassium
  • Medicines with salt to retain salt.

Monitoring of the effects of Action is regularly scheduled:

  • Physical exams: The doctor will monitor your child’s growth and development, including monitoring changes in height, weight, blood pressure, and bone growth.
  • Side effect monitoring: The doctor will monitor your child for side effects such as bone loss and growth retardation, especially if the dose of the steroid-type replacement medication is high and if it is used chronically.
  • Blood tests to check hormone levels: Regular blood tests are essential to ensure hormone levels are in balance. Boys who have not yet reached puberty need enough cortisone to suppress androgens so that they can reach normal heights. For women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, it is important to suppress androgens to reduce unwanted male symptoms. On the other hand, too much cortisone can cause Cushing’s syndrome.

Reconstructive surgery

  • For some girls who have very blurry genitalia as a result of classic CAH, doctors may recommend reconstructive surgery to improve genital function and make them look more feminine.
  • Surgery may include reducing the size of the clitoris and rebuilding the vaginal opening. Surgery is usually done at 2 and 6 months of age. Women who have had reconstructive genital surgery may need more cosmetic surgery in the future.
  • Genital surgery is easier to do when the child is very young. However, some parents choose to wait for surgery until their child is old enough to understand the risks and choose their gender.
  • Before making decisions about the best treatment for your child, talk to your doctor about these issues. Working together, you and your doctor can select the information that will help your child’s development.
  • Psychological support is important for the mental health and social adjustment of girls with genital disabilities.

Prenatal treatment

Synthetic corticosteroids that cross the placenta are controversial and considered experimental. More research is needed to determine the safety and long-term effect of this treatment on fetal brain development.

Complications of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

People with classic CAH are at risk for an adrenal crisis because they have very low levels of cortisol in their blood. It can cause diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, high blood sugar, and shock. Adrenal crisis is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Aldosterone can also below, leading to dehydration and low sodium and high potassium levels. The nonclassic form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia does not cause the adrenal crisis.

Men and women with classic or non-classic CAH also experience fertility problems.


There is no known way to prevent congenital adrenal hyperplasia. If you are thinking about starting a family and are at risk of having children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, your doctor may recommend that you see a genetic counsellor.