Overview of Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy | Endocrinology

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy

What does Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy?

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is a simple procedure that involves sending a fine needle through the skin to collect fluid or tissue samples from a cyst or solid mass, as you can see in the following figure. The sample of cellular material taken during FNA is sent to the pathology laboratory for analysis.

Fine needle aspiration biopsies are often done when a suspicious lump is found, for example, if an abnormality is found on an imaging test such as an enlarged lump or lymph node, or an X-ray, ultrasound, or mammogram. Fine needle aspiration is a relatively non-invasive, less painful, and faster method compared to other tissue sampling methods, such as surgical biopsy. Aspiration of a cyst can also be accomplished with an FNA, where fluid drains from the cyst without the need for analysis.

Fine injection aspiration is a type of biopsy procedure. In fine needle aspiration, a fine needle is inserted into the abnormally visible area of ​​tissue or body fluid. As with other types of biopsies, a sample obtained during fine needle aspiration can help diagnose or rule out conditions such as cancer. Fine needle aspiration is generally considered a safe procedure. Problems are very rare.

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy: when to use

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy occurs most often in swelling or lumps under the skin.

The doctor may experience a lump on the test. Or the imaging test can find:

  • Computed tomography
  • Mammography
  • Ultrasound
  • Imaging tests can also detect scars deep within the body.

Doctors may recommend Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy for areas such as:

  • Cysts (fluid-filled lumps)
  • Nodules or mass (solid lumps)
  • Enlarged lymph nodes

Without a biopsy, it is usually difficult for a doctor to confirm what these abnormal areas are. You may not know if they are a threat to your health. The most common reason for having a fine needle aspiration is to have a cancer test.

Most needle aspirations are done in these areas:

  • Chest
  • Thyroid gland
  • Lymph nodes in the neck, groin, or armpit
  • These types of fine needle aspirations are done through the skin.

With endoscopy, doctors can also reach deeper areas of the body. Endoscopy uses a flexible tube connected to the light and the camera. During endoscopy, a doctor may aspire to place a fine needle into an abnormal scar on the chest or abdomen.

Advantages and risks of Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy

A fine needle biopsy is a quick and effective test to determine the status of suspicious tissue. Compared to a surgical biopsy, a fine needle aspiration biopsy is less prone to scarring, infection, or pain and has a significantly shorter recovery time. It is also very useful in the diagnosis and treatment of cysts.

The possibility of cancer cells entering unaffected tissue when the needle is removed runs the risk of a fine needle aspiration biopsy, but this is very rare when tested by trained doctors. Because an FNA biopsy can only sample a small number of cells from a mass or lump, there is a risk that any abnormal cells may be missed and not detected. This may mean that a larger sample must be taken, for example by core needle biopsy.

What you can expect

During fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy

A Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is a quick and easy procedure. This is done to collect a sample of cells or fluid from the cyst or solid mass, to allow examination of the cells under a microscope. Local anaesthesia does not usually require fine needle aspiration, as this procedure should not be painful. Delicate needle aspirations can be performed on tactile patches (felt patches) or on fuzzy patches found on ultrasound or X-ray.

After cleaning the skin at the needle entry point, the paste was examined. If you can feel the bulge, your doctor or surgeon will touch it to hold the bulge for the needle. If the lump cannot be felt, pictures may be needed to find the exact location. This can be done with an ultrasound, where the surgeon looks at the needle on an ultrasound monitor and guides it to the area, or uses a computer to create a stereotactic (for the breast) mammogram and precise coordinates using two mammograms at different angles.

The type of fine needle used for fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy has a hollow interior and is much more pleasant than a normal needle used to draw blood. You can see an example of what the needle on the right side looks like in the picture. Inserting the needle is similar to the feeling of a blood test. A vacuum or negative pressure is created in the needle and with the inward and outward movement of the needle, the sample is taken.

Multiple needles may be required to ensure that the sample is adequate. After the test is complete, a small bandage is placed on the site and you can continue with your normal activities. Even if you experience some tenderness or bruising at the injection site‌, there are usually no problems with this procedure. If you experience unexplained bleeding, swelling, fever, or pain with acetaminophen, see your doctor immediately. Using aspirin to reduce pain is not recommended as it can aggravate any injury.

After the fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy

Once your doctor has collected enough cells or tissues for analysis, the Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy procedure is complete. Your biopsy sample will be sent to the lab for analysis. Results may be available in a few days, although more technical tests may take longer. Ask your doctor how long to wait.

Your healthcare team may bandage the area where the needle was inserted. You may be asked to apply pressure to the bandage for several minutes to make sure there is less bleeding.

In most cases, you can leave when the needle Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy procedure is finished. Whether you can leave immediately or need an exam depends on which part of your body was biopsied. In some cases, your healthcare team may want to examine you for a few hours to make sure you don’t have a problem with the biopsy. If you are receiving IV sedation or general anaesthesia, you will be taken to a comfortable place to rest while taking the medicine.

Plan to take it lightly for the rest of the day. Keep the bandage on until you have tidied up the area where the Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy was received. You may experience some mild pain or discomfort in this area, but it will resolve in a day or two.

Fine injection aspiration (FNA) biopsy results

The samples taken are examined by a pathologist under a microscope. A detailed report is provided on the type of cells observed, including an indication that the cells may be cancerous. It is important to remember that having a lump or mass does not mean cancer; Most needle aspiration biopsies reveal suspicious lumps or masses that are benign (without cancer) or cysts. Aspiration samples can be described as one of the following types:

  • Inadequate / Inadequate: The sample taken is not sufficient to exclude or confirm the diagnosis.
  • Benign: No cancer cells. The lump or growth is under control and does not spread to other parts of the body.
  • Difference/uncertainty or suspicion of malignancy: Results are unclear. Some cells look abnormal, but they are definitely not cancerous. A surgical biopsy may be required to obtain an adequate sample of the cells.
  • Malignant: Cells are cancerous, uncontrollable, and have the energy or have spread to other parts of the body.

Efficacy of Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy

A Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is an effective tool for diagnosing and diagnosing suspected lumps or masses. A rapid diagnosis means that the cancer is found early, which provides more treatment options, or that benign tumors can be diagnosed without the need for surgery. Compared to a surgical biopsy, it requires general anaesthesia, which is less likely to cause pain and infection or scarring. Fine injection aspiration requires some skill to perform and understand biopsies. To ensure an accurate result is achieved, it is important that the GP, radiologist, surgeon, pathologist, or oncologist performing your procedure is experienced in Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy.

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